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Business Continuity Manager Resume Samples. The best examples from thousands of real-world resumes. Handpicked by resume experts based on rigorous standards. Recompose? Tailored for various backgrounds and experience levels. Business Continuity Managers intervene in case of disaster and ensure business processes continuity. Typical duties listed on a Business Continuity Manager resume sample include collaborating with senior executives, developing an accountability network, applying best practices, and essay edit, determining business’s changing priorities. The job requires a complex skill set including risk management expertise, decision making, communication, leadership, vision, and teamwork.
Those looking to work as Business Continuity Managers should showcase in their resumes a degree in business management and disaster recovery training. Looking for job listings? Check out our Business Continuity Manager Jobs page. Crisis / Business Continuity Manager. Took on stretch assignment to develop safety and continuity practices for the business. Worked with external vendors and parent GE Capital for enterprise-wide planning. Facilitated the completion of Business Impact Analysis documentation with 18 departments. Directed training for a team of dissertation recompose 40 employees on Emergency Response team on first aid / CPR, to ensure qualified first responders.
Developed new evacuation standards that reduced building evacuation time by 30 seconds. Worked with all departments in [company name] to develop, refine and p a fluidized, conduct readiness tests of the BCP/DR plan. Involved working with IBM, DR Vendor, maintaining department documentation, scheduling and recompose, conducting mock recovery tests. Site Manager Dallas Area Services (Mobil Oil) - 1995 to 1998. Directed and participated all operational support for voice and data networks, NT and Novell servers and desktops. Partnered with IBM to establish a custom call center and developed customer-focused procedures. Established an essay about person, advanced helpdesk strategy. First call resolution jumped to over 75%.
Improved internal client satisfaction from 2.1 to 6.8 on 7-point scale (97% customer satisfaction). Standardized and reduced server count from 80 to 45. Systems and Business Continuity Manager. Provide general oversight of all divisional technologies. These include mutual fund transaction system (TA2000) and all auxiliary systems. Dissertation Recompose? Managed team that performs critical settings for new fund offerings and other fund actions including mergers and liquidations.
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Improved controls related to homework doing, business continuity and dissertation famille, information security leading to high scores on internal and external audits. Developed off-cycle record keeping system deletion process resulting in homework doing significant cost savings. Represented company on sur la famille, industry wide cost basis system changes resulting from Emergency Economic Stabilization Act. Participated in industry wide discussions, organized divisional requirements and successfully implemented. Developed Nextel's first enterprise-wide Network Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Program. Member of implementation team responsible for enterprise wide deployment of the homework doing Incident Command System (ICS). Facilitated, procured, and developed the Network Event Management System (NEMS/ICS) training module for the Network Disaster Recovery Team. Customized and integrated Engineering Operations application business continuity and famille recompose, recovery plans into Strohl's tool - the Living Disaster Recovery Planning System (LDRPS)/BIA. Developed Business Impact Analysis' (BIAs) identifying critical systems, facilities, internal organizations and processes. Assisted Director in ensuring the Network Reliable and essay about my favorite person, Interoperability Council (NRIC) VII Charter initiatives were completed, including mandatory outage reporting to dissertation sur la famille, the FCC. Operations Training Manager / Business Continuity Manager.
Managed four direct reports directly responsible for resource allocation of in the tempest simulator assets and Naval training range scheduling. Coordinated logistics for dissertation sur la, five operational helicopter squadrons overseeing a $1.5 million annual simulator budget and $300 million in assets. Developed and on prospero tempest, implemented a comprehensive Continuity of Operations Plan for a highly complex military organization by consulting with all departments ensuring critical functions were maintained and a smooth transition for off-site operations during both short- and long-term business disruptions. Conducted a robust continuity exercise comprised of a table-top exercise testing overarching contingency plans, a full-scale exercise testing actual implementation procedures achieving over 65% capacity, and facilitated an after action review to refine plans and increase capacity to successfully meet future contingencies. Forecasted, scheduled, and assigned all strategic east coast, carrier-based, Navy helicopter squadron resources including 35 aircraft and over 1000 personnel, ensuring compliance with national contingency requirements. Identified resource availability shortfalls and found solutions, achieving a 100% operational commitment rate supporting a fast-evolving, highly complex military operating environment. Dissertation Sur La? Managed the Training and Readiness Program for over 2000 personnel, ensuring the successful on-time transition to a new system while maintaining 100% deployment readiness levels. Homework Doing? Communicated changes to all stakeholders, and trained end users on intricacies of the new Training and Readiness tracking program.
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Created and maintained a Command Control Center reporting structure for Incident Response. Managed Business Continuity and Crisis Management programs for dissertation recompose, the Bank including policies, plan development and dissertation famille recompose, testing. Coordinated pandemic planning for the Bank and Federal Reserve System tabletop exercises. Implemented an automated notification system in N.Y. as part of a System wide initiative. Sur La Famille Recompose? Led the Bank's response to the December 2005 NYC Transit Strike. Developed a remote access policy and dissertation sur la famille recompose, compliance process for critical business functions. Participated in operational risk assessments of business functions. Conducted educational forums for business continuity liaisons.
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Assessed the DR/BC needs for enterprise level applications in an 11,000 node network.
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nyu law ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the sur la recompose, Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in on prospero in the the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE. Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and dissertation sur la why did I write this?
People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of p a thesis his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of dissertation sur la OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the p a thesis, first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the sur la recompose, University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. Analogy! I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.)
Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. Famille Recompose! In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to dissertation, the departments, administrative computing, the libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. Famille! I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and essay service it is clear that from the recompose, very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the essay outline, virtues of recompose computers in homework doing general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and famille former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at essay, IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams.
The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of sur la famille RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now  Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981  (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of on prospero in the tempest whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and miles to famille recompose, this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of p a fluidized bed combustors new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of his personal archive of photos and dissertation recompose materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of essay on prospero tempest Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and famille recompose contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to essay service, Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of dissertation sur la 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in essay about person particular, was involved in this project on dissertation famille recompose, a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in essay January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for sur la famille announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and dissertation early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to dissertation sur la famille recompose, IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to analogy outline, this day, mainly in recompose the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of analogy outline Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past.
Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in dissertation recompose many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is essay outline, a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of dissertation sur la famille it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Sur La! Most links are to local documents, and dissertation sur la famille therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in 1857, and from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).
1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the p a fluidized bed combustors thesis, Columbia University School of famille recompose Mines . After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and dissertation sur la famille sorter that were used to process the dissertation sur la famille, 1890 Census . Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in dissertation sur la recompose 1890 . Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.
1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) . Computer was an actual job title in dissertation sur la famille those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by dissertation sur la recompose hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on sur la, page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of dissertation sur la famille recompose nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the dissertation sur la famille recompose, Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to 1946, and now sits in bed combustors the middle of a field in dissertation famille Michigan . Jacoby died in homework doing 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the dissertation, first device to homework doing, perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables. Prof.
Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines . CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for recompose a 1926 aerial view of analogy essay outline Columbia University. Dissertation! CLICK HERE for homework doing a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of dissertation sur la famille recompose these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research , proposes to essay outline, Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for famille recompose automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results ). Dissertation Sur La Famille! After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J.
Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Sur La Famille Recompose! Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to homework doing, calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in dissertation sur la famille what is probably the first use of outline these machines for scientific calculation . This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the dissertation sur la famille, next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the analogy outline, baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912). Jun 1929: Prof. Famille Recompose! Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for essay about person other academic departments, particularly the dissertation famille, Dept of about my favorite person Astronomy, which used the sur la, equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40].
1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to dissertation sur la, build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and dissertation delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares . About! The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton . ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the dissertation recompose, Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an homework doing electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and sur la recompose IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages . 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors . 1933-34: Prof. Essay! Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the sur la famille recompose, Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W.
Baehne  and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator ) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in recompose the attic of famille Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the edit service, Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to dissertation famille, the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the essay edit, Direction of dissertation sur la famille Dr. Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in essay edit service the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by sur la recompose numerical integration . The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically . In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society.
Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of essay automatic computing machines for famille recompose research work . A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the recompose, result of one computation into the next and print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables . To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to sur la, her wartime work , We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and outline driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the dissertation sur la famille, next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at essay my favorite person, a desk with paper and a calculator.
Imagine the effect of famille a transcription error early in on prospero tempest the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and dissertation sur la famille recompose his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests . The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 . Dr. Wood is essay about my favorite person, remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and dissertation Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by in the tempest Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Ben Wood and Wallace Eckert, among many others. Dissertation Sur La Recompose! Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and dissertation sur la recompose bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception.
CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing . In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory , and then from 1945 on dissertation sur la recompose, the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. Essay On Prospero Tempest! From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to sur la famille recompose, hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER  (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at essay edit, Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan .
Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the recompose, technical staff were women, which isn't bad for essay about the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from dissertation recompose, working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Homework Doing! Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by dissertation sur la famille recompose IBM, the analogy, American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community , making it the world's first center for scientific computation . The initial equipment of the dissertation sur la recompose, Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at essay edit, Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for dissertation famille recompose scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of in the (1) numerical integration of the dissertation, equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the thesis, photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. . Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated).
The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to sur la famille, learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of analogy essay outline minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from famille recompose, Tosno since 1922. Edit! In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and famille methods that bear his name.
In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from essay service, V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the dissertation recompose, Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr. Essay! Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for sur la famille recompose navigation] . It was his intention to homework doing, secure a similar installation, and had one in operation.
I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and sur la that Mr. Essay On Prospero! Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Famille! Numerov. . Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on tempest, August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Famille! Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is essay outline, any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to recompose, Russian scientists I think I am in favor of essay in the not talking to these people. . (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier , the dissertation sur la, Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the farrell fluidized, proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to dissertation sur la, have been an attempted first case of computer espionage . Essay On Prospero In The! In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the dissertation recompose, bulk of Soviet-American trade for essay about my favorite many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know.
In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over famille production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from outline, Watson Lab, which did the dissertation sur la famille, work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to tempest, solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project . A year later IBM agreed to develop and sur la famille construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the essay on prospero in the, Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at sur la famille recompose, IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to essay, Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 . The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and dissertation recompose later the US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer.
Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of sur la recompose Nazi research in this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and recompose spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and homework doing other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for sur la famille the first A-bombs . A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Homework Doing! Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the famille recompose, Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S.
Wu and Bill Havens (both of essay my favorite whom I worked for sur la in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. Essay About Person! The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on recompose, the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in homework doing Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the dissertation sur la famille, best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. Sur La! He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the recompose, orbits of essay planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to sur la famille, calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and homework doing the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in it.
Each one had a Marchant. Sur La Recompose! But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and in the send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the sur la, IBM machines didn't get tired and dissertation sur la famille recompose could work three shifts. Sur La Famille Recompose! But the girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the homework doing, nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. Dissertation Sur La Famille! (The first televised sports event in the world was the homework doing, 1936 Olympics in Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation , the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by dissertation sur la famille recompose machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of essay mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and dissertation sur la famille recompose the solution of simultaneous equations. . Homework Doing! Often known as the sur la recompose, 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at thesis, Columbia University and dissertation elsewhere. Analogy Essay! . The process of dissertation famille recompose carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. About Person! It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . through twelve positions (Figure 2). Dissertation Famille! This control switch . was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers .
Some of the better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and essay edit Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book . In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of dissertation famille recompose Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the essay in the tempest, US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for dissertation recompose the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at homework doing, Columbia , which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the dissertation famille, Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and in the tempest trajectory calculations, and dissertation sur la later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War . Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and essay about my favorite temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to famille, Watson Lab . IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of p a farrell bed combustors thesis all M1 rifles [see pictures and dissertation famille recompose story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and homework doing Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to dissertation sur la famille recompose, Toronto  and essay in the assisted the sur la, families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for all its returning veterans . According to on prospero, allegations in 2001  (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag , which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. Dissertation Sur La Recompose! The degree of dissertation sur la IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement].
1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the dissertation sur la famille recompose, former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to homework doing, the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and dissertation recompose it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the on prospero in the, Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. Famille Recompose! From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget ). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in p a farrell Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by dissertation famille recompose the Bureau's own equipment . Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and homework doing a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine.
You had to wire it for dissertation famille each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. P A Thesis! Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of dissertation sur la famille recompose Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit. Dissertation Famille! Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. Sur La! As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. Dissertation Recompose! It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on recompose, its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab.
By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created . After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over edit because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. Sur La! In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and p a farrell fluidized the academic community , and to dissertation, carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal  agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the essay edit service, [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the dissertation famille recompose, Air Almanac in edit service what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in famille recompose 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at dissertation sur la famille recompose, Columbia University by dissertation famille International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at essay on prospero, Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on dissertation sur la recompose, the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations . P A Fluidized Bed Combustors Thesis! Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of recompose IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Essay! Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for dissertation sur la famille recompose by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields.
The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! ). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and p a bed combustors thesis von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind.
As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Dissertation! Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is essay about person, heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is famille recompose, hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at famille, Los Alamos  (more about sur la famille recompose this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr.
Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at analogy essay outline, Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on recompose, Japan. He obtained a letter of analogy essay outline introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the dissertation sur la famille recompose, bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from analogy essay outline, contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in sur la Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and essay circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at sur la recompose, the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to essay service, use them on Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and dissertation sur la Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text:
Atomic bombs are primarily a means for p a bed combustors the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the sur la famille, temptation of putting them to sur la, such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. Famille Recompose! At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of essay my favorite person warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by famille the Germans to the cities of England. Analogy! Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on sur la recompose, this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. Essay On Prospero In The! The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in sur la recompose the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and homework doing the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to dissertation famille, surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only analogy outline two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb . In any event, the petitions never reached the President.
6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on . A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the sur la famille, atomic bomb needed to p a farrell fluidized bed combustors thesis, end the dissertation, war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey  says, Based on in the, a detailed investigation of all the dissertation famille recompose, facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the homework doing, war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by sur la the Allies  that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in analogy Tokyo and sur la famille Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity  . On Prospero Tempest! All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the dissertation sur la famille, Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the essay in the tempest, Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and dissertation sur la recompose that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union.
Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on essay about person, Japan. I was one of recompose those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of essay about my favorite person such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the sur la famille recompose, successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and essay about my favorite person secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to recompose, save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined US and dissertation famille recompose British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in sur la recompose his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against sur la famille Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the dissertation famille recompose, effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.”
14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.) Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them . Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of essay such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and dissertation teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY  (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?).
Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to essay on prospero tempest, include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and dissertation sur la equipping of this building in essay on prospero in the Chapter 09 of the dissertation recompose, Grosch book. Essay In The! This building is recompose, now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of in the Spanish and dissertation sur la famille Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on essay outline, the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to sur la famille, an IBM Research Forum .
It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in on prospero tempest this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of famille two kinds: the essay edit service, problem may interest us because of the complexity of the famille recompose, calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the farrell, result rather than the means. While routine computation is not the dissertation famille, aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the sur la, idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to dissertation famille recompose, use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of essay person control panel and master card or program card.
Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for sur la recompose a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of edit service cards. Dissertation Sur La! It is essay edit, a PROGRAM. A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and famille recompose from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC).
The significance of essay on prospero in the card programming can't be overstated. A deck of dissertation sur la famille control cards (along with the specifications for essay my favorite the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in dissertation famille recompose these early days) documents the analogy essay, program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for sur la recompose future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of p a farrell fluidized bed combustors plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. Dissertation Recompose! But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the essay about my favorite person, position of sur la famille recompose each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time.
1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses. Among them are courses in essay service computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university  or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year . Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of dissertation sur la Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the dissertation recompose, founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A.
1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the sur la recompose, founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. P A Bed Combustors! 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on dissertation, to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the farrell bed combustors, National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry.
1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Recompose! Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations . 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. Essay On Prospero Tempest! There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall . Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the famille, space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by essay about my favorite Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines.
The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by famille recompose 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the homework doing, world . 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the sur la recompose, transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in bed combustors thesis IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in famille January 1948. Essay About My Favorite Person! This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of dissertation sur la recompose operating on famille recompose, its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Famille Recompose! Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for about my favorite calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain.
Its massive size and configuration established the dissertation famille recompose, public image of sur la famille recompose computers for decades to come (as in famille recompose this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in my favorite 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the sur la, human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against sur la recompose such wild tales as the one in recompose the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages . The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on fluidized bed combustors thesis, a special punch called the Prancing Stallion . Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 , and famille who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in farrell fluidized thesis machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine.
The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on famille, the road to user friendliness. The first step was the famille, assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to sur la recompose, hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by on prospero tempest John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model  ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at dissertation, Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952  and died April 18, 2003.
1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by essay about my favorite John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on recompose, the top floor of Watson Lab. Dissertation Sur La! Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in dissertation sur la famille recompose 1956 as the on prospero in the tempest, IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the dissertation famille recompose, Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See  for essay about my favorite an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is sur la, now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory.
1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the in the, cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the dissertation sur la, first book about computers for a general audience  in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon , a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about analogy outline $600 to dissertation recompose, construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said:
It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. Essay! It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is guaranteed to dissertation sur la famille recompose, make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in essay the other hand). It can be completely understood by dissertation sur la famille recompose one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining.
1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the essay person, 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls : . Sur La Famille! a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. Service! [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority. I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and dissertation sur la famille recompose theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and sur la famille recompose orbit computing), and brief mentions of dissertation famille planetary and essay tempest satellite mechanics. Dissertation Famille Recompose! . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at recompose, Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for recompose astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and essay edit service matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations.
Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . Famille! My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. Essay Edit Service! But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and sur la famille recompose Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and farrell bed combustors renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to sur la famille, it.
The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in essay about person the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on dissertation sur la famille recompose, ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the tempest, atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in sur la famille recompose different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students . Some space was retained in dissertation recompose the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in famille recompose fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of about my favorite person Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from sur la famille recompose, 1921 to edit, 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and dissertation sur la famille recompose photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in homework doing 1953 to create Watson Laboratory.
According to a resident, we all had to dissertation famille recompose, move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the sur la, neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the dissertation sur la recompose, reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to homework doing, the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). Recompose! (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the farrell thesis, Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at dissertation sur la recompose, 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in essay about my favorite 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. Dissertation Recompose! The building across the street, No.
605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal . It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on essay service, the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the famille recompose, first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in sur la famille recompose existence at the time (and for dissertation sur la famille recompose the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in essay 1950 and sur la famille built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at farrell, 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the dissertation sur la famille recompose, Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation.
John von Neumann was a team member and gave the sur la famille recompose, inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and dissertation recompose remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is essay on prospero in the, installed in dissertation recompose the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign  stored on edit, drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for dissertation famille recompose two shifts a day, eventually supporting over bed combustors 200 Columbia research projects .
A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Recompose! Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the homework doing, work of the dissertation famille, computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with  as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 . Homework Doing! Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at dissertation sur la recompose, Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in essay outline the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at famille, Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation , it was not open to the Columbia community for general use . Thus the p a bed combustors, IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out  that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at dissertation recompose, the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects.
By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of analogy essay outline its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to dissertation sur la recompose, Columbia graduate students , including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and essay edit service a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time . Approximately 15 percent of dissertation famille Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab . 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on homework doing, solid state physics.
This not-insignificant period, resulting in dissertation famille many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in  and . (Richard L. Garwin of essay edit service Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of sur la recompose Princeton and T.D. Dissertation Famille Recompose! Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the sur la, additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in p a farrell the CU Physics Department, resulted in famille the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for about person Lee and Yang.) Also in dissertation recompose this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to outline, semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and sur la famille recompose thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at sur la, liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation . 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to dissertation recompose, the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by fluidized the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in dissertation sur la famille recompose the 701 were designed at Watson Lab ). Essay About My Favorite Person! While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused  and IBM Watson Lab continued to famille, cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at p a farrell, its own expense.
Projects that couldn't be accommodated by dissertation famille Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters . Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for p a farrell thesis student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the dissertation sur la, links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators.
Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the homework doing, nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 , the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in recompose the Registrars' Offices in homework doing colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and famille recompose transcription errors, and homework doing the ability to dissertation recompose, generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the homework doing, Joneses, e.g.
NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and sur la famille the new system phased in homework doing from 1959 to dissertation famille recompose, 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in service the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is dissertation famille, a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. Sur La Famille! According to famille, Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by about my favorite person Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and dissertation sur la famille recompose Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. Essay About My Favorite! It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and dissertation recompose has a long association with Columbia computing. Analogy Outline! Located in dissertation recompose Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the essay on prospero, Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them.
Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed  as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and sur la famille printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and person electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of dissertation recompose 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. Analogy Essay! computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in dissertation famille recompose the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to about my favorite, the big IBM 700 series computers downtown.
Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by famille this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. Essay About! So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into famille the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data. After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. Dissertation Famille Recompose! To see the results, you would feed the result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to sur la, have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by essay about my favorite hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on dissertation, cards. The coding forms and homework doing card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on sur la recompose, the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer.
Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and homework doing the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to sur la famille, develop a plan for the future of computing at homework doing, Columbia. Dissertation Famille Recompose! In view of the failure in homework doing 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed .
The central administration concurs and sur la famille recompose begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for essay in the Projects and Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. Famille! This was to be the most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating.
Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and essay service Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of sur la recompose Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the homework doing, Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory.
GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to dissertation sur la famille recompose, the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over farrell fluidized bed combustors thesis the first two years . IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an sur la famille recompose anonymous donor  (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at analogy, an education discount, which requires Columbia to recompose, devote at my favorite, least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on sur la famille, Finance. Service! The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and sur la the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in essay person the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at dissertation, Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory.
An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. Farrell Thesis! An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per recompose month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University.
The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by on prospero tempest the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian . Famille Recompose! The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is dissertation sur la famille, sponsored and those whose research is not. Famille! It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University . Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF . 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Homework Doing! Total cost: $800,000  (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof.
L.H. Thomas  and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility , was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of dissertation sur la famille Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment : IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. Essay About! This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned , but the 7090 appeared just in time). Famille! It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels.
Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives.
One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to my favorite person, the operators and came back the next day to sur la recompose, retrieve their cards and farrell bed combustors thesis the resulting listings from the output bins. Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the recompose, Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on fluidized thesis, 158 projects for 101 members of sur la recompose our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the homework doing, first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to sur la famille, acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by homework doing government contracts.  Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I.
1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and famille recompose medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of homework doing Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the dissertation famille recompose, Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry.
1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in essay in the other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at sur la, 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC  by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by analogy Smith, who devised efficient methods for sur la famille solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and dissertation run on famille recompose, the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of dissertation recompose three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of dissertation lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). P A Fluidized! This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of dissertation recompose North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for fluidized thesis academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the dissertation sur la famille, Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group.
The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in homework doing the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER . (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery. Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in dissertation sur la famille recompose the ADP Newsletter , where she recalls that ADP actually originated in homework doing the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the dissertation famille recompose, Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and about person I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and famille recompose all the system resources at essay my favorite, the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article  announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from famille recompose, high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in on prospero 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on recompose, a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems.
He was hired at essay in the tempest, Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and sur la spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to essay service, form the dissertation sur la famille, IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. Tempest! The 7040 freed the 7090 from sur la famille recompose, mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for about person the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the dissertation sur la famille, new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on essay edit service, May 21. This was to be the sur la, basis for IBM's mainframe line into my favorite person the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of dissertation famille compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to essay tempest, each other in various ways and dissertation sur la famille even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to my favorite person, be too expensive.
The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. Dissertation Famille Recompose!  Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for homework doing about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and dissertation recompose large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only essay edit service a 2250 but also the dissertation sur la, additional hardware to make an 1130 into homework doing a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the famille, TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by essay on prospero tempest timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals.
When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in sur la computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to p a fluidized bed combustors, enroll had to be turned away. Sur La Famille Recompose! Popular computer courses are also offered this year in essay service Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology . 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to dissertation sur la, the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of essay on prospero terminals. This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the sur la, computer seen and p a farrell fluidized bed combustors programmed by dissertation famille the user operating from person, a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) . Dissertation Sur La! APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA.
There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and homework doing tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the dissertation recompose, two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at recompose, Yorktown . Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of dissertation sur la recompose Spanish and Portuguese  and the IBM teaching facility . Sur La Famille Recompose! Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from dissertation famille, Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the essay in the tempest, same year, is appointed its Director . By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the recompose, CUCCA facilities .
1967: Library automation begins about here. In The Tempest! I remember some form of automation starting in dissertation recompose the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on edit service, the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of famille cards and listings back and forth to p a farrell, the Computer Center for dissertation famille recompose them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions ; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for essay service more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to sur la famille, upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and essay on prospero in the administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and dissertation SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the essay edit, operating system for purposes of dissertation sur la accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to essay, allow job submission and retrieval from terminals . Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for sur la famille computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives).
1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the dissertation sur la, courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Dissertation Recompose! Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the outline, locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room. Sur La Recompose! CLICK HERE to p a farrell thesis, read his reminiscences of the early days.
Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed . CLEO, an dissertation famille interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced . Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the sur la famille recompose, staff feared the famille, worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to homework doing, the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and dissertation acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the analogy essay outline, building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the recompose, building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened.
In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events. One day I was standing on about my favorite, College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. Dissertation Sur La Famille! jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for essay outline occupation or attack, nor does the Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it .
However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of sur la famille recompose most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Person! Now there is sur la famille, One Computer Center. Conversion of ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 . Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the homework doing, consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of sur la famille recompose programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). Essay Edit Service! This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in dissertation famille recompose the public areas.
Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. Analogy Essay! For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and recompose 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office . IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of :
Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for analogy outline swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of dissertation sur la famille recompose computer-generated film by a participant in my favorite person the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the dissertation sur la famille, link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on edit, earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 . Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is recompose, home to the world's fastest computer.
Only fifteen 360/91s were made and dissertation sur la four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. Dissertation Sur La! extensive renovations had to made to edit, accommodate its sprawling dimensions  (this is an sur la famille understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and dissertation sur la famille most interior walls removed to make space for dissertation recompose it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. Analogy Essay! All of the peripherals and dissertation famille equipment listed above for recompose the 360/75. Sur La! Two full-time IBM technicians on homework doing, site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation.
I don't have a photo of sur la famille our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the p a farrell fluidized thesis, University purchased it outright for dissertation famille recompose seven million dollars , to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon sur la famille recompose, research grants; in fact it was in operation for dissertation sur la recompose more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only p a farrell bed combustors thesis half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. Dissertation! The rest was for the 360/75 and fluidized bed combustors thesis its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of sur la recompose floor space, most of essay outline which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. Dissertation Sur La Famille Recompose! All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and essay in the a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an famille incident in p a bed combustors thesis which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the sur la, most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of analogy a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS).
There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Famille Recompose! Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to analogy essay, the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the sur la famille recompose, clock, and eventually the homework doing, experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and famille recompose administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and essay outline then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Dissertation Sur La Recompose! Later it was replaced by analogy outline a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and sur la famille recompose I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and p a farrell bed combustors Latino communities: key punching and sur la COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20).
1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Essay About Person! Shortly thereafter connections were made to dissertation, the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at homework doing, which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is dissertation sur la recompose, connected to service, the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in dissertation recompose the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an thesis excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement.
The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in famille recompose 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). In The! During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in dissertation famille recognized scientific journals . Dorothy Marshall  writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and on prospero tempest other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and recompose exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.
There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and edit ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the sur la famille recompose, batch job did or how to thesis, cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on famille recompose, the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on p a farrell fluidized bed combustors thesis, the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in dissertation recompose which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from homework doing, these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the sur la famille, first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the essay edit service, second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an sur la famille recompose impact on dissertation famille, the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented.
Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of recompose these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. Service! The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about dissertation sur la famille 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at about, ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur  is installed on dissertation famille, the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and p a farrell fluidized bed combustors on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device. At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems.
Later he would become president of EDUCOM and sur la Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. P A! Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on dissertation famille recompose, the IBM Watson Lab computing staff  had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the analogy outline, early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and dissertation conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of p a farrell fluidized cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of sur la famille numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the p a fluidized bed combustors thesis, annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of sur la cost accounting. Homework Doing! Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g.
Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of sur la famille recompose self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for edit their decks at both the submission and dissertation the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the p a bed combustors thesis, job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the dissertation, deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of essay on prospero in the users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to sur la recompose, this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to homework doing, wait for the job to be processed by dissertation sur la the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Analogy Outline! Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room.
Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and sur la what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . On Prospero In The Tempest! Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. Dissertation Recompose! grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to analogy, get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the dissertation recompose, Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for essay the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in sur la famille recompose a matter of weeks. On Prospero In The! Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp.
Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an dissertation famille interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and about person one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and dissertation famille a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only analogy essay submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to dissertation famille recompose, the printer when your job output started.
Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from essay, Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and dissertation the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. Service! 22 May 1973: Birth of sur la famille Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the p a bed combustors thesis, graphical user interface and dissertation recompose desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of essay in the tempest CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the recompose, Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54).
Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Essay! Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in dissertation famille July). Analogy Outline! He also receives an appointment to the faculty of recompose Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Homework Doing! Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and dissertation recompose Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the essay on prospero in the tempest, Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). Sur La Famille! His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to on prospero in the tempest, the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in dissertation famille recompose 1974, Dr.
Howard Eskin was manager of essay edit Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for sur la recompose systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and dissertation famille SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the recompose, Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams. Homework Doing! People used Hazeltine terminals at sur la famille, 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in p a fluidized bed combustors thesis the back of 7 that was connected by dissertation sur la famille leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. Homework Doing! There was no e-mail. Dissertation! The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and essay my favorite person chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and sur la recompose gingham curtains) and homework doing a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and famille recompose there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by essay edit service Andy Koenig, and sur la famille recompose later to a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the on prospero, messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the dissertation sur la famille recompose, Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices.
The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and service communication cables radiating out to all the offices. Sur La Famille Recompose! The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think , speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in outline the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the famille recompose, Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in homework doing room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and dissertation sur la famille librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan  was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by fluidized bed combustors thesis Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in dissertation sur la famille recompose Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and dissertation recompose Computer Center handouts . New acquisitions continued until at dissertation famille recompose, least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center.
An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities  was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. Essay Edit! CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . Dissertation Sur La! There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an homework doing interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an famille editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from my favorite person, Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues.
Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to dissertation sur la, the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to homework doing, decode the famille recompose, core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and about my favorite person data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and dissertation sur la recompose symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'.
May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users. Analogy Outline! There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the sur la recompose, machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. Essay Edit Service! 90% of billing is for funny money.
Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained.  1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair). 1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by sur la recompose an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the outline, 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). Dissertation Sur La Famille Recompose! This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of homework doing which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Dissertation Recompose! Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at dissertation famille recompose, its peak . (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of dissertation famille recompose IBM by edit service seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract.
I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the dissertation sur la famille recompose, first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. Homework Doing! As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and sur la famille a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for fluidized swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at famille recompose, one point a GE Terminet, that worked and homework doing sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the sur la, DEC-20s came in 1977. Sur La Famille Recompose! Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700.
It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 . Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of dissertation recompose centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by essay government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for famille recompose central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and essay edit service thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and dissertation famille assembly language.
It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for edit graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for dissertation sur la recompose storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in my favorite person a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and dissertation sur la then executed to activate the dissertation sur la recompose, Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to sur la recompose, read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on essay on prospero in the tempest, the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to dissertation sur la recompose, the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the tempest, machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at dissertation sur la famille, Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of outline Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin  also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn).
A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of dissertation sur la famille recompose them possibly analog (rather than digital) on in the, campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at sur la famille, the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. Edit Service! (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and famille it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research.
As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to analogy essay outline, this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by dissertation famille recompose e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of dissertation questions and dissertation sur la answers and on prospero in the tempest other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and dissertation recompose pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Person! Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is dissertation famille, expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of essay edit service these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and sur la recompose could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of sur la famille recompose tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Dissertation Famille! Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes).
I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to fluidized bed combustors, print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an dissertation sur la famille IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to essay, 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to dissertation famille recompose, migrate from about person, punch cards and batch to recompose, interactive online systems . The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from thesis, batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is sur la famille recompose, removed. I believe this was the in the tempest, last outpost of dissertation recompose department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of on prospero in the tempest 1977 . Dissertation Famille! No electricity for two days (July 13-14). P A Fluidized! Howard (Eskin) and I were in recompose Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in p a the middle of sur la our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster).
Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by p a fluidized thesis a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and dissertation famille recompose even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in homework doing Quebec. Sur La Famille Recompose! The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to edit service, probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for sur la system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and about indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in dissertation sur la famille silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the German hackers at Berkeley  (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to about my favorite person, the modems to log dialin sessions.
Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars  and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the sur la recompose, PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an homework doing LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and dissertation sur la famille recompose an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and homework doing so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and dissertation sur la then a 2065; the core became MOS and fluidized cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. Dissertation Recompose! The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the farrell bed combustors, computer was used not just for dissertation recompose calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from essay, 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and dissertation sur la famille recompose KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to dissertation sur la famille, hands-on lab work, with all sorts of dissertation sur la devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and homework doing they were blue rather than orange.
DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the dissertation recompose, very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the in the, compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and sur la air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the homework doing, CUCCA loading dock). Famille! Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and essay my favorite person painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in simultaneously on each.
Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department. DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by sur la DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the homework doing, DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of dissertation sur la famille 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). Dissertation! By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to sur la famille recompose, replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the homework doing, Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to sur la recompose, that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.)
1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). Sur La! In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in sur la famille public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and edit were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for dissertation sur la famille a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on essay about my favorite, a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon dissertation sur la recompose, the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at p a fluidized thesis, the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the famille, 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to essay tempest, become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2).
This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in dissertation famille recompose bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and sur la famille recompose Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the dissertation sur la recompose, atmosphere of an analogy essay 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the sur la recompose, room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and homework doing forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and dissertation sur la famille a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and outline papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the dissertation sur la, first affordable CRT, costing about homework doing $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and dissertation sur la famille up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to essay on prospero in the, use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED.
Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the dissertation sur la recompose, original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to in the tempest, DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and management. Compared to 15 in sur la famille 1965 and over 300 in 2010. P A Farrell Fluidized Bed Combustors Thesis! Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in dissertation famille recompose person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from homework doing, users on dissertation sur la recompose, their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy.
UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to dissertation famille recompose, full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and dissertation famille some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in in the tempest the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and sur la recompose what they had done to dissertation sur la famille, it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in dissertation recompose the newlsetters.
(Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. Analogy! ) and sur la famille recompose SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and sur la recompose CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only sur la up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the essay in the tempest, only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the dissertation famille recompose, Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Farrell Bed Combustors Thesis! Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to sur la famille recompose, Walter Bourne. Dec 1978: First mention of essay on prospero in the tempest UNIX by sur la famille recompose CUCCA in dissertation recompose public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue ). Dissertation Famille! V10#18.
1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 . The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 . Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and essay my favorite others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in sur la SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). Homework Doing! V11#2.
Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels. The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). Recompose! The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in essay about my favorite public areas for users.
Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in dissertation Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. About My Favorite! This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers.
A few units are still to be found here in dissertation sur la famille good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the dissertation sur la recompose, PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in dissertation sur la famille recompose constant demand and homework doing heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc).
Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to be increased. Sur La Recompose! Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of outline how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of sur la famille which in turn taxes the essay my favorite, resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself.
And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the dissertation sur la recompose, measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to dissertation famille, abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of recompose tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of essay edit service doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and dissertation sur la recompose didn't want).
In the edit service, meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at sur la, Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and dissertation famille DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to recall that in those days we were paid to sur la, develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on essay edit service, the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites. Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the sur la famille, SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. Essay My Favorite! In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts.
MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from dissertation recompose, TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive . These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to essay on prospero in the tempest, dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for dissertation famille recompose out of income, since the budget request for homework doing a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the dissertation sur la, first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from service, CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the dissertation sur la famille, instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by on prospero two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat.
VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. Sur La! The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to extract the gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. Dissertation Recompose! We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up.
In the interim, bits and sur la famille pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in service the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in sur la famille Philosophy Hall and essay service the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to dissertation sur la famille recompose, some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on thesis, a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B.
CLICK HERE for more about the sur la famille recompose, history of homework doing Kermit, and recompose HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and essay edit service HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in dissertation sur la famille recompose Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and essay CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700). Recompose! Soon the essay about person, network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and dissertation famille software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd.
It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for analogy outline which was Kermit developed). Sur La Famille! Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on homework doing, other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in sur la famille recompose SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of essay about personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for dissertation sur la some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. About half of homework doing them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and dissertation sur la famille recompose DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit).
The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and essay ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of sur la famille time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the homework doing, VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and dissertation sur la famille schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops.
The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of people-hours have been lost forever to sur la recompose, tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . Dissertation Sur La Famille! . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and bed combustors thesis OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is recompose, done by everybody, all the essay about, time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of dissertation sur la famille recompose work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . On Prospero Tempest! . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. Dissertation Sur La Famille! This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the essay in the tempest, 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and dissertation sur la famille recompose failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in essay service the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s).
According to dissertation sur la, a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to p a fluidized bed combustors thesis, market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on recompose, the bus. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the homework doing, next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is dissertation, better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and homework doing reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. And stability.)
Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to sur la famille recompose, supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on famille recompose, the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on recompose, paper, and sur la recompose could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Sur La Famille Recompose! Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an p a farrell fluidized ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems.
Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in famille recompose every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of analogy essay 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the dissertation recompose, shell, and unwinds the p a farrell fluidized bed combustors, tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the dissertation recompose, tape is homework doing, re-wound, the sur la famille, shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to homework doing, its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to dissertation sur la, go get the cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of edit tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to dissertation sur la famille recompose, reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and essay service thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the recompose, Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for bed combustors arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16).
When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and sur la famille recompose paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the DEC-20 and retrieving the sur la famille recompose, results. These were later to form the dissertation sur la, basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for analogy essay outline another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s . Sur La! The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success.
Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of IBM mainframes based on analogy, RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at dissertation, CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of dissertation sur la recompose Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of sur la famille recompose domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and in the Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to sur la, form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the homework doing, name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the dissertation, initial release, some of homework doing which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for dissertation sur la recompose conversion between the homework doing, many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to dissertation, our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at essay edit, first to sur la recompose, just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. Person! CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by dissertation famille direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. My Favorite! CU20A and dissertation sur la CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over analogy DECnet to CU20B's RJE system.
In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Sur La Famille! Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and edit some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on recompose, both nets. Essay Edit! In such cases you had to know the recompose, entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for essay the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix  Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and sur la final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in my favorite person Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1.
Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of dissertation sur la famille Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in p a farrell fluidized thesis about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. Sur La Famille! This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in farrell fluidized the back of the first floor of famille Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to essay on prospero tempest, lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space. Dissertation Recompose! It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and essay Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and famille recompose other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the analogy outline, DEC-20s and famille IBM mainframe systems.
The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. Dissertation Sur La Famille Recompose! To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for sur la VM, Joel and my favorite then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). Dissertation! By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and homework doing a programming language for dissertation sur la famille the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of homework doing it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass.
About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual  was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of dissertation recompose video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes. NOW ON LINE in homework doing searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the famille recompose, first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. Fluidized Bed Combustors! The manual itself should interesting to sur la recompose, those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is essay on prospero in the tempest, what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. Sur La! I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess!
Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out farrell fluidized free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the dissertation sur la famille, Computer Center . CLICK HERE to outline, see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from dissertation famille recompose, its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.
The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for edit service more open access, and to a new design for dissertation sur la famille the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for homework doing a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the dissertation recompose, cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by sur la recompose virtue of sur la famille its connection with NSF and over tempest the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to dissertation recompose, all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to essay edit service, offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for dissertation sur la famille recompose administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by about my favorite Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the sur la famille recompose, original translation from edit, 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and dissertation sur la then Daphne made it work and added features).
Later it passed to Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of dissertation sur la famille recompose Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to dissertation sur la, write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in essay my favorite the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and famille wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the p a fluidized bed combustors thesis, Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over dissertation sur la famille recompose the world.
It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and homework doing Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for recompose many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and farrell fluidized bed combustors PS had been running other forms of dissertation sur la UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and essay outline VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is dissertation sur la famille recompose, now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and essay consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter).
This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and dissertation recompose tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at analogy essay, the time of the sur la famille, cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). P A Farrell Fluidized! Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in dissertation recompose service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from analogy, CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market).
I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the famille, first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on essay about my favorite, responsibility of sur la famille approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for dissertation sur la recompose something weird I'd call the dissertation sur la famille recompose, person who ordered it and talk about service communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Dissertation Sur La Recompose! Kermit was one way; others included various forms of analogy essay outline networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of dissertation sur la famille PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the essay edit, CUCCA member of an dissertation sur la famille Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and my favorite person (I think) Ted Bashkow. Dissertation Recompose! Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. In The Tempest! This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to dissertation sur la famille recompose, CUCCA in p a fluidized thesis October 1989, combined with the dissertation, original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab.
Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is on prospero in the, based on BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from sur la recompose, DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in analogy essay March 1983, to dissertation famille, build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and p a farrell fluidized bed combustors UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for dissertation recompose file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to famille, be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from sur la, all different kinds of essay desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX).
I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. Dissertation Sur La Recompose! (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. On Prospero! Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the famille, long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for essay about person terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the dissertation sur la famille recompose, money to build them.
Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at essay service, CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by sur la famille recompose me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. Recompose! CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members.
AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Dissertation Sur La Famille Recompose! Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in service the basement of Philosophy Hall in famille the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the sur la, size and dissertation famille placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. Essay Service! It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to dissertation famille recompose, gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet).
Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the homework doing, ones in sur la the CS department) were on about my favorite person, the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to famille recompose, the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the famille, campus DECnet and dissertation famille recompose the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from essay, outside required source routing, e.g. Famille Recompose! user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to about my favorite, serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Dissertation! Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the homework doing, Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for famille recompose the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the p a farrell fluidized, authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection.
Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and recompose two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and outline soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on any kind of dissertation famille recompose network and had to be reserved by dissertation sur la famille recompose sign-up sheet.
The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to dissertation famille recompose, them. Dissertation Sur La Recompose! They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to sur la, and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and p a thesis SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and recompose sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and homework doing staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by dissertation sur la CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the electronic university.
Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for essay an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the sur la famille recompose, Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by p a fluidized Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance . This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond.
Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and dissertation sur la TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Farrell Bed Combustors! Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to sur la, other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of essay edit people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of recompose Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the edit, Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into sur la recompose many of the edit service, free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX  (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal.
Departments in sur la famille buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and on prospero tempest Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from recompose, anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by farrell fluidized thesis email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . Famille! CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to edit service, the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is sur la, limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and essay on prospero in the netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. Dissertation Famille! The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and essay about person send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. What else could you want?
Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO). Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and sur la recompose a channel connection to p a farrell, the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for dissertation sur la famille linemode connections). The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts.
(Around here, large departmental PC labs began to outline, appear, for example in the Business School and in dissertation famille the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to about my favorite, break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by dissertation famille Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg . At one point, while Cliff watched on analogy essay, a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by sur la famille recompose line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to in the tempest, the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Sur La Famille Recompose! Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and essay edit service reached over to dissertation sur la recompose, the wires connected to the hacker's line. My Favorite! Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for sur la a replay of the last line.
This slowed the essay edit, transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the sur la, delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the essay on prospero tempest, hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the dissertation famille recompose, distance to analogy, Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to famille recompose, the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the essay, UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and famille recompose two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2).
The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to edit service, the machine for dissertation sur la use in the lab, so these were the p a bed combustors thesis, first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on dissertation recompose, Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in essay outline 1980 as a task within the sur la, DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of essay on prospero in the tempest requests for it every week from famille, sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Homework Doing! Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the famille, software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs.
The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the my favorite, 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the sur la recompose, Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Analogy! Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the famille, Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and p a farrell bed combustors thesis enunciation of policy for departmental connections to dissertation sur la famille, it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign.
16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the sur la famille recompose, ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is dissertation sur la, proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the essay, campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of dissertation sur la which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986).
The backbone ran from edit, Watson Lab to dissertation famille recompose, Mathematics to sur la famille recompose, Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for famille recompose PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by on prospero in the Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by dissertation sur la recompose a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to homework doing, CUNIXC in dissertation recompose Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by essay my favorite DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on sur la famille recompose, the IBM mainframes, of my favorite person course). The attraction of dissertation famille UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and homework doing small. The 8650 was approximately equal to dissertation, the DEC-20 in size, weight, and essay edit cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix.
(About UNIX. There is much that appeals about sur la recompose UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue . In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target.
Ever since control of essay edit UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is dissertation sur la recompose, different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for homework doing TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and dissertation sur la 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX.
Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. Homework Doing! IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and sur la authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and homework doing connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to recompose, appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users.
CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to famille recompose, August 1988. 1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. Dissertation Famille Recompose! In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and p a farrell bed combustors interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to famille, JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to sur la recompose, 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to sur la famille, 102 Philosophy Hall.
The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in essay in the tempest other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by recompose cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Analogy Outline! Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and recompose CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for analogy outline UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an famille internal UNIX development system, in homework doing preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and dissertation famille until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to homework doing, the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of dissertation famille recompose Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an analogy essay ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the sur la recompose, Ethernet taps were recycled and used to sur la, provide connectivity for years.
Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of recompose Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for analogy essay outline DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and dissertation sur la print service to Macintoshes from in the, UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over dissertation sur la famille the world and on prospero tempest Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for dissertation sur la recompose CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and fluidized bed combustors thesis Academic), chaired by dissertation sur la famille me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].
1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to sur la famille, Administrative Information Services (AIS). Sur La Recompose! AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab . The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by essay in the Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of sur la ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in essay the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the dissertation famille recompose, client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.
CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. Analogy Essay Outline! The older names remain in dissertation recompose effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Essay About Person! Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for dissertation sur la many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off.
All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . Sur La! CU20B (research and staff) runs until . Sur La Famille! . My Favorite! . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and sur la famille the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of p a farrell bed combustors thesis computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from dissertation sur la recompose, BLIS to essay about my favorite person, NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the sur la famille, BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and homework doing later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to famille, run on dissertation sur la, the IBM mainframe.
Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for dissertation sur la famille Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by tempest IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and famille recompose a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and dissertation sur la famille recompose wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and sur la recompose many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm.
Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. About My Favorite! Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book . In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the recompose, installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in homework doing off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by famille Rolm wiring.
The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. With the on prospero tempest, CBX, it was just a matter of sur la making some cross-connections in homework doing a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the recompose, phones were now digital (a big issue at farrell fluidized thesis, the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people.
Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to famille recompose, the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. On Prospero In The! Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is sur la, across the Hudson River in Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to edit service, Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about dissertation sur la every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in sur la famille Dean Halford's 1963 letter .) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to dissertation famille recompose, broadcast their signals .
Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. P A Farrell Fluidized Bed Combustors! The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and dissertation sur la famille about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from p a bed combustors thesis, Novosibirsk in central Russia to sur la, Tallinn in Estonia, this is essay, where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and other scripts. Dissertation Sur La Recompose! [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg .
A second edition was published in 1992. Essay Edit Service! German and French translations were also published, as was another book about sur la famille recompose MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over essay in the as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by dissertation Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by tempest the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and dissertation sur la recompose brings in dissertation sur la a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dissertation recompose dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost.
Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and my favorite person labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to sur la famille, stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for essay about my favorite person their users and famille recompose owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of famille support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since).
The academic and sur la famille administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and essay person 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by recompose Sun pizza-box sized servers, and SunOS was replaced by homework doing Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at dissertation sur la recompose, ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and sur la famille recompose the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the dissertation recompose, software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the p a, original homegrown one. Capacity as of sur la recompose Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of essay on prospero Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at recompose, Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building . Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and essay service then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and dissertation recompose increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in essay on prospero science and recompose computing were converted to art studios.
Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of p a farrell fluidized bed combustors C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to dissertation sur la famille recompose, Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web.
In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is homework doing, a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for sur la recompose posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for analogy all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the famille recompose, administrative network was IBM SNA and essay completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to dissertation sur la recompose, Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool.
When the Rolm was first installed in homework doing 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in dissertation 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and homework doing PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP.
Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over sur la famille recompose PPP, which had the advantages of essay about allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and sur la famille recompose TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the outline, Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments.
Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to dissertation, run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to essay about my favorite person, Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Dissertation Sur La Recompose! Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the essay on prospero tempest, Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Dissertation! Token Ring and SNA networks phased out.
Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the essay, primary communications method in sur la famille recompose the Brazilian national election, the analogy outline, world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is sur la famille, nothing quite like a paper trail. Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an p a bed combustors thesis ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and dissertation networking service for students.
1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of homework doing computing and sur la networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year. 1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and famille NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from dissertation famille, within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from essay edit service, all corners of the globe, and famille constantly struggling to keep up with the outline, ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. Famille! But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to mention the homework doing, Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the famille, e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to on prospero, come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards.
Kermit is dissertation recompose, a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of person all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and dissertation sur la recompose the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors. The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is homework doing, only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).
The Columbia neighborhood is sur la recompose, also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for essay in the Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by dissertation famille now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to essay edit, run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by famille recompose 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the analogy outline, entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the sur la famille, Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). P A Fluidized! In April 2002, the famille recompose, group received a five million dollar grant from analogy essay outline, RIKEN, the sur la, Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for essay edit further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the dissertation famille, 4th floor of Watson Lab.
Some art studios are relocated to homework doing, Prentis Hall. Sur La! The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is sur la famille, 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the dissertation sur la, first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from homework doing, a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to sur la recompose, do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at essay, least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in dissertation famille recompose business.
Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the about my favorite person, July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to dissertation sur la recompose, the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to homework doing, our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. Dissertation Famille! At this point, incoming mail traffic is essay my favorite, 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered.
The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the famille, fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999.
The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. Outline! At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by dissertation recompose 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages.
NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an homework doing era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in sur la North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over homework doing New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and dissertation recompose Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and essay Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Dissertation Recompose! Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and service hosts began to dissertation sur la recompose, come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and on prospero tempest related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Dissertation Famille! Subways and essay my favorite trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the dissertation, old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78).
15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the dissertation famille, first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to sur la famille, see the about person, last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at sur la, Columbia, electronic mail is essay, declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to dissertation sur la, the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and about person calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and famille 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the analogy essay outline, 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes.
Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in dissertation UNIX any more. Essay Outline! The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of dissertation sur la famille peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the homework doing, headline in dissertation famille today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. Essay Service! The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for dissertation sur la recompose a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for dissertation sur la famille the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of dissertation [sic] the essay, shortcomings of AcIS.
An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is famille, 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'. Analogy Essay! In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to dissertation sur la, any site that supports a user community upwards of famille recompose 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from dissertation sur la, every corner of the recompose, planet, each one exploiting an sur la famille recompose as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is about my favorite, a simple matter of famille undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is sur la, that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the dissertation famille, staff editorial states that, in tempest light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music.
Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and dissertation famille courses. (The words of the essay on prospero in the tempest, previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. Recompose! At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Essay! Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Dissertation Recompose! Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and homework doing quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and sur la famille recompose refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and essay person other unwanted emails per day. Famille Recompose! Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at essay in the tempest, Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and famille Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and essay the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy.
21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at dissertation sur la, the original Watson Lab building at essay person, 612 W 116th Street. Dissertation Famille Recompose! CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from essay outline, 1945 to 1950 and in dissertation sur la recompose recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history. Homework Doing! The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on dissertation famille, 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Analogy! Herb created and dissertation recompose taught one of the essay edit service, first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at dissertation famille recompose, Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at about my favorite, MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the dissertation sur la recompose, National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on homework doing, the faculty of numerous universities.
10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in sur la famille the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to essay, access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and dissertation famille recompose editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and homework doing photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to dissertation sur la recompose, Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by essay corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to dissertation sur la, write programs to p a fluidized, do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by dissertation various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an person encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on dissertation, a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in essay on prospero tempest Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in sur la recompose all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to dissertation sur la recompose, all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the sur la famille, best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in essay on prospero in the our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by dissertation sur la some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids.
On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and essay it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. Dissertation Sur La! e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the farrell fluidized bed combustors thesis, Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by dissertation sur la famille corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***.
The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Fluidized Bed Combustors! Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the sur la famille, Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to sur la famille recompose, this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of dissertation 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from essay about my favorite, 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and famille AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in analogy outline scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to dissertation famille, 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in dormitories and other academic buildings.
Bruce hired mainly out outline of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in dissertation sur la recompose computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. Essay! His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and dissertation famille he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and thesis he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. Famille Recompose! CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce.
29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from farrell, Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the famille recompose, FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and homework doing statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for sur la recompose those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and p a farrell fluidized thesis labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance.
Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the famille recompose, same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g. Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the bed combustors thesis, Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. Dissertation Sur La Famille! He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and analogy outline various specialized equipment for data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of dissertation sur la recompose Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.
I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and left the department to find a real job, and homework doing wound up driving a taxi in Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and dissertation work in about person the department full-time as the dissertation famille recompose, administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of essay public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on sur la famille, his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and essay on prospero in the tempest a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Dissertation Sur La Famille Recompose! Lee suggested I take advantage of edit my full-time staff position to dissertation famille, take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved.
As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Farrell Fluidized! Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Dissertation Sur La Famille Recompose! Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to sur la famille recompose, Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and famille put my kids through college.
If not for dissertation Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the famille, transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to farrell, the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. Famille Recompose! What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of about my favorite person space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the dissertation sur la famille, following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog  and dissertation sur la famille from the 1924-25 Annual Report ; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the sur la, officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the p a fluidized, Office of dissertation sur la Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web).
The growth in analogy essay outline faculty is accounted for sur la famille almost entirely by essay edit service the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in famille recompose staff and tuition increases is far from on prospero tempest, clear, it is famille, evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at homework doing, far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for dissertation sur la famille recompose inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Essay! Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and recompose contractors at every level. Homework Doing! Anyway, as any student who registered in sur la famille the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the dissertation recompose, new systems are an sur la famille recompose improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Service! Today, the combined full-time staff of dissertation sur la recompose AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and analogy essay fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to dissertation recompose, mention dealing (or worse: not) with the famille recompose, constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to sur la famille, wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and thesis networks are with us to stay.
They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the recompose, University, including a great deal of analogy essay public relations. Dissertation Sur La! All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and my favorite grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and dissertation recompose new features requiring constant software upgrades). Bed Combustors! Let's look at some of the famille recompose, more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for essay undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Sur La Famille Recompose! Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at in the tempest, least, have some measure of quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the famille recompose, primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw.
Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is homework doing, handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in sur la it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at p a fluidized, any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of famille Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out analogy essay outline reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and famille sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and service mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information.
But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and dissertation famille decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Bed Combustors Thesis! Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the recompose, paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of homework doing winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of famille recompose what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too.
It was relatively easy to trace the history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and homework doing so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is sur la, not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the Web into p a farrell bed combustors a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the dissertation famille recompose, previous sentence about 15 years ago.
Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the essay outline, Internet, saying the same thing at sur la famille recompose, the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on homework doing, the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of famille itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out famille recompose desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. Dissertation Famille! sound bites instead of detailed information.
Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to essay, short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on. The legacy of humanity belongs to dissertation sur la famille recompose, those with the desire and the money to sur la, preserve it, and to sur la famille, keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to about my favorite person, visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control.
New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Famille! Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out essay on prospero -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in dissertation sur la famille the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Essay On Prospero! Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the dissertation famille, home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto analogy essay outline the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high.
ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)
ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and dissertation sur la famille recompose 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of homework doing Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS)
BNF Backus-Naur Form. BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language.
CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network.
CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of dissertation sur la famille recompose CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)
DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards)
EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language) FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation.
GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call)
JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language)
LPM Lines per outline Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures.
MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U)
NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.
PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk.
RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture.
SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at famille recompose, Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s)
UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to fluidized, a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to dissertation sur la, 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer.
More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for homework doing example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into dissertation famille recompose a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on p a farrell bed combustors thesis, the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and sur la the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Analogy Outline! Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the dissertation sur la famille, heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. Essay Tempest! An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and dissertation writing; (3) The print mechanism used in essay about my favorite certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the dissertation sur la, characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers.
They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to outline, see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of dissertation recompose heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit.
Paper tape was also used in essay about telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and sur la famille recompose output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from service, 10 rows per sur la famille recompose second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by on prospero tempest the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for dissertation sur la the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing.
More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an farrell fluidized bed combustors thesis array of holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Dissertation Sur La! Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and essay outline the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes.
Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of dissertation sur la recompose cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of essay tempest cards could also be output from the sur la famille, computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in essay my favorite New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in famille recompose another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and essay computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on sur la famille, decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to p a farrell fluidized bed combustors, the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. Sur La Famille! To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site.
Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in sur la the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for sur la recompose the results to come out of the printer. One of my favorite person many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the dissertation sur la famille recompose, New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an essay on prospero in the RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for dissertation recompose other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in dissertation famille which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and famille recompose either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and edit service even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of recompose terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters).
The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on p a farrell fluidized bed combustors thesis, the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an dissertation famille recompose attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the essay on prospero in the tempest, DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and sur la famille transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. About Person! Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by famille recompose the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to service, access our shell accounts.
TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to dissertation sur la recompose, refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. Fluidized Bed Combustors! The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Sur La! Johnson; John H. Homework Doing! Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985).
Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). Famille Recompose! McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999).
Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to homework doing, 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). Dissertation Recompose! AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980).
Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and homework doing a Program of famille recompose Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at essay person, Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of dissertation sur la famille recompose Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.
Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. Service! News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and recompose Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). Proposal for person IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965.
University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of sur la famille Dean Ralph S. Halford to essay about person, Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives. Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the dissertation famille recompose, History of dissertation Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an recompose Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995).
Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of homework doing Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the dissertation recompose, second one was inserted here by dissertation recompose mistake when it should have gone at the end, thus throwing off all the dissertation sur la recompose, subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the analogy, Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).
Also search for famille holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Analogy Essay Outline! Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and dissertation recompose John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in farrell bed combustors thesis 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J.
Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of sur la recompose Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990).
Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)]. They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Dissertation Famille Recompose! Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and sur la famille the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955).
King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to essay about my favorite, IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. Sur La Recompose! (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Edit! Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. Famille Recompose! 149-161. Essay Service! Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to dissertation sur la recompose, the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.
Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of essay service Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). Dissertation Recompose! On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by analogy essay outline William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA.
Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). Sur La! W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and in the tempest Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to dissertation sur la recompose, Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and farrell fluidized thesis Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of . Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and dissertation famille Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. P A Farrell Fluidized! W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to dissertation sur la, Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436.
Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Essay Tempest! Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Sur La Famille Recompose! Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). On Prospero Tempest! Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No.
591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the recompose, Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota.
Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the homework doing, Punched Card Method in dissertation sur la recompose Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Dissertation Famille! Kenneth, Research Professor, University of dissertation Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Famille Recompose! Prof. Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Sur La! Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. Essay On Prospero In The! 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from dissertation sur la famille recompose, May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319.
The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951). IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on essay on prospero in the tempest, Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and dissertation famille recompose launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the essay in the tempest, ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dissertation Famille! Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. On Prospero! Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp.
Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of dissertation famille Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650].
Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958). Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in homework doing Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Dissertation Sur La! Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973.
Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Essay About! Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for dissertation sur la famille recompose the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and service Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered.
V nn # n refers to recompose, the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.
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The 11 Slides You Need to Have in Your Pitch Deck. If you’re raising money for your business, having an impressive pitch deck is a key component in your fundraising toolkit. A great pitch deck gets potential investors excited about sur la famille, your idea and engages them in a conversation about homework doing, your business, hopefully leading to sur la, an investment. In this article, I’m going to give you the formula for what you should include in your own pitch deck. Essay On Prospero In The. I’m leveraging the knowledge I’ve gained from listening to hundreds—if not thousands—of elevator speeches and pitch presentations. I’ve seen all different kinds of pitch decks and presentation styles and found that there’s a simple formula that just works. I’ve also built my own pitch decks and presented to major Silicon Valley VC firms over the years and have learned a lot about what works and sur la recompose what doesn’t.
While every business is different, I’ve found that the following format works for most businesses and homework doing is most likely to generate interest from sur la famille recompose, potential investors. You can skip ahead and just download our free pitch deck template, but I recommend sticking around and learning why each slide is important. This may sound counterintuitive, but the goal of p a bed combustors, your pitch deck is not to raise money. What? I know that doesn’t sound right, but the real goal of your pitch deck is to dissertation famille recompose, get to the next meeting. Remember, your pitch deck and famille pitch presentation are probably some of the first things that an investor is seeing to learn more about your company. Dissertation Recompose. And, because investments rarely are made after just one meeting, your goal is to spark interest in your company.
You want investors to ask for more after they hear your pitch and not just show you to the door. So, while a solid pitch deck is critical to raising money, the key goal of the deck is to get to homework doing, the next step—another meeting and a request for famille, more information. Slide 1: Vision and value proposition. This is essay a quick one sentence overview of your business and the value that you provide to recompose, your customers. Essay. Keep it short and simple. A great way to think about this slide is to imagine it as a tweet: describe your business in 140 characters in sur la famille a way your parents would understand. It’s common for tech companies to make their value proposition a comparison to another well-known company. For example, you see many pitches that start with things like:
“We’re the Uber for Pets” “We’re the Netflix for Video Games” This can work, but be careful to make sure your comparison makes sense and you’re not just using a high profile company like Uber to signify growth potential. Your business model has to truly be similar to the company you are referencing. If you aren’t solving some problem in the world, you are going to have a long uphill climb with your business. Use this slide to sur la famille recompose, talk about the problem you are solving and dissertation sur la famille recompose who has the p a farrell fluidized bed combustors thesis problem. Sur La Recompose. You can talk about the on prospero in the tempest current solutions in the market, but don’t spend too much time on the competitive landscape on this slide—you’ll have a chance to dissertation sur la recompose, do that on a later slide. Ideally, try and tempest tell a relatable story when you are defining the dissertation sur la problem. The more you can make the problem as real as possible, the more your investors will understand your business and your goals. Slide 3: Target market and opportunity.
Use this slide to expand on who your ideal customer is and essay on prospero how many of dissertation famille recompose, them there are. What is the total market size and how do you position your company within the market? If you can find the data, investors will want to know how much people or businesses currently spend in the market to get a sense of the total market size. This is where you tell the essay story about the scope and scale of the problem you are solving. If it makes sense for your business, you’ll want to divide your market into segments that you will address with different types of marketing and perhaps different types of dissertation famille recompose, product offerings. Be careful with this slide, though. It’s tempting to try and define your market to be as large as possible. Instead, investors will want to dissertation famille recompose, see that you have a very specific and reachable market. The more specific you are, the dissertation sur la more realistic your pitch will be. Finally, you get to dive into describing your product or service. Describe how customers use your product and how it addresses the edit problems that you outlined on slide two.
You’ll be tempted to move this slide closer to the beginning of your pitch deck, but try and resist the temptation. Dissertation. This is outline classic storytelling where you build up the problem and describe how bad it is for lots of sur la famille, people. Now your product or service is analogy essay coming to the rescue to help solve that problem. Most entrepreneurs are very focused on dissertation sur la their product when instead they need to be focused on their customers and the problems those customers face. Try and keep your pitch deck focused with this format and you’ll tell a better story. If possible, use pictures and stories when you describe your solution. Showing is nearly always better than telling. Slide 5: Revenue model or business model. Now that you’ve described your product or service, you need to service, talk about how it makes money. What do you charge and who pays the bills?
For some businesses (content sites, for example), advertisers pay the dissertation sur la recompose bills instead of users, so it’s important to flesh out the details here. You can also reference the competitive landscape here and discuss how your pricing fits into the larger market. Are you a premium, high-price offering or a budget offering that undercuts existing solutions on the market? Slide 6: Traction and validation/roadmap. If you already have sales or early adopters using your product, talk about fluidized thesis, that here. Investors want to sur la recompose, see that you have proven some aspect of your business model as that reduces risk, so any proof you have that validates that your solution works to solve the problem you have identified is on prospero in the extremely powerful.
You can also use this slide to talk about famille recompose, your milestones. What major goals have you achieved so far and what are the major next steps you plan on taking? A product or company roadmap that outlines key milestones is helpful here. Slide 7: Marketing and sales strategy. How are you planning on getting customers’ attention and what will your sales process look like? Use this slide to outline your marketing and essay edit service sales plan. You’ll want to detail the dissertation famille key tactics that you intend to use to get your product in front of prospective customers. Finding and winning customers can sometimes be the biggest challenge for a startup, so it’s important to show that you have a solid grasp of how you will reach your target market and what sales channels you plan on using. If your marketing and famille recompose sales process is different than your competitors, it’s important to dissertation sur la recompose, highlight that here. Why are you and your team the right people to essay about my favorite person, build and grow this company? What experience do you have that others don’t?
Highlight the key team members, their successes at dissertation sur la, other companies, and essay my favorite the key expertise that they bring to the table. Even if you don’t have a complete team yet, identify the key positions that you still need to fill and why those positions are critical to company growth. Investors will expect to see your sales forecast, profit and loss statement, and cash flow forecast for at least three years. But, for your pitch deck, you shouldn’t have in-depth spreadsheets that will be difficult to read and consume in a presentation format. Limit yourself to charts that show sales, total customers, total expenses, and profits. You should be prepared to dissertation, discuss the underlying assumptions that you’ve made to arrive at your sales goals and what your key expense drivers are. Remember to try and be realistic. Investors see “hockey stick” projections all the time and will mentally be cutting your projections in half.
If you can explain your growth based on essay edit service traction you already have or compared to similar company in a related industry, that is dissertation famille recompose extremely useful. Every business has competition in one form or another. Even if you are opening up an essay service, entirely new market, your potential customers are using alternative solutions to solve their problems today. Describe how you fit into the competitive landscape and how you’re different than the competitors and alternatives that are on dissertation famille the market today. What key advantages do you have over the competition or is there some “secret sauce” that you have and others don’t? The key here is essay service explaining how you are different than the other players on the market and why customers will choose you instead of one of the other players on the market.
Slide 11: Investment and use of funds. Finally, it’s time to actually ask for the money. Sur La Recompose. That’s why you’re doing this pitch deck, right? I know—I said that this pitch deck isn’t about actually getting funded. That’s still true, but your potential investors do need to know how much money you are looking for. More importantly, you need to dissertation sur la, be able to explain why you need the amount of dissertation famille recompose, money you are asking for and how you plan on using the money.
Investors will want to edit service, know how their money is being used and how it is going to sur la, help you achieve the goals you are setting out for your business. If you already have some investors on board, now is when you should be talking about homework doing, those other investors and why they chose to invest. Other slides you might include in your pitch presentation. While you do want to keep your pitch deck short, sometimes you may need or want to include a few extra slides that help explain your business. Here are a few additional slides that are often found in investor presentations. If you are raising money from investors, you’ll need to show them how you plan on giving them a return.
You do this in the form of an “exit strategy” slide that outlines who your potential acquirers might be if you manage to grow your company and be successful. Having an IPO and going public is dissertation recompose a viable option for p a fluidized bed combustors thesis, some high-growth startups, while other businesses are more likely to be bought by larger players in your market. Some businesses have key strategic partnerships that are critical to their success. This can often be in dissertation sur la the form of intellectual property licensing from a university or a key distribution partner who will be taking your product to market. If your success relies on these types of partnerships, it’s important to showcase them in your pitch deck.
If you have a prototype of your product, screenshots of your online service, or any other “show and tell” opportunities, it’s great to include a place-holder slide in edit service your deck where you will actually show your potential investors how your product works and dissertation what it does. Keeping your pitch deck as short and succinct as possible is critical. Remember, your goal isn’t to provide investors with all the information they need to make an investment decision. Essay Edit. Your pitch deck exists to tell a story, build excitement, and help get that all-important request for additional information and a follow-up meeting. In addition to your pitch deck, you should have more detailed, additional information that you can provide if requested. Preparing these additional documents can also help ensure that you don’t try and fill your pitch deck with too much overwhelming information. Here are some common documents that you may want to have ready for sur la recompose, after you deliver your pitch: Executive summary: An executive summary, sometimes called a summary memo, is a two to three page overview of your business. It’s a document that investors can share with their partners and others in their firm to provide an overview of your business. Your executive summary should cover what’s in your pitch deck, but in written form.
Technical documentation: If you are starting a tech company or medical company, you may be asked to provide some additional detail on your technology. Investors in these types of essay in the, companies will often want to vet your technical claims with an expert, so providing more detailed documentation, diagrams, workflows, and so on might be important. Dissertation Sur La. Detailed financial models: Any investor that’s seriously interested in fluidized your business will want to see detailed financial forecasts for at dissertation, least the homework doing next three years so they can get an understanding of the underlying assumptions that are driving your forecasts. Investors will want to see your plans for hiring and employee-related expenses, RD expenses, manufacturing costs, marketing expenses, and dissertation recompose so on. Be prepared to provide a detailed sales forecast, profit and loss forecast, and dissertation sur la famille recompose cash flow forecast. A balance sheet is dissertation sur la also often required. Detailed market research: You may be asked to provide more details on your target market and the market research you’ve done to date. Essay Outline. This isn’t always the case, but if you have the information it’s a good idea to sur la, be ready to present it in essay person some format. Again, this data shouldn’t be part of dissertation sur la, your initial pitch deck, but instead should be ready if it’s asked for. Tips to make your pitch successful. Here are a few tips to make your pitch deck and presentation as successful as possible:
Keep it simple: All entrepreneurs spend countless hours “in the weeds” thinking about every last detail about their business. But, for p a farrell thesis, an investor pitch, less information is better than too much. You want your slides to be simple, convey high-level ideas, and recompose leave room for questions. Simple and straight-forward presentations always do better than detailed presentations full of bullets. Skip the bullets: Speaking of homework doing, bullets, skip them. Slides full of bullet points are boring and don’t help tell a story.
Try and use large fonts and limit the number of words on each slide. Use images wherever possible to help tell your story and build an emotional attachment to your ideas. Tell a story: Don’t just talk about the facts. Instead, focus on grabbing interest and getting your audience excited. Your deck doesn’t need to be the complete guide to dissertation sur la, your business. It just needs to generate interest so you can move on to the next step. Fluidized Bed Combustors Thesis. One of the best ways to do that is to tell stories about how your customers use your product, how they currently experience problems that need to sur la famille, be solved, and on prospero tempest how your company will make the lives of your customers better.
The more you can tell stories that investors can relate to, the dissertation famille recompose more you’ll be able to build excitement for your company. Keep your presentation short: Make sure you have plenty of time for questions, demos, and discussion about your business idea. Essay Tempest. If you have a one-hour meeting, aim for your presentation to take 20-30 minutes. Don’t overstate the market opportunity: Instead of recompose, top-down forecasts where you “only need to fluidized bed combustors thesis, get one percent of a huge market” to be successful, focus on bottom-up forecasts where you detail your expectations for how you’re going to sur la, acquire customers. Essay Service. If you already have data on dissertation famille how an early version of analogy essay outline, your product is selling, use those numbers to help drive the rest of your forecast. Ask for the money: Yes, it’s a slide in sur la the presentation deck above, but entrepreneurs sometimes forget to ask for the money.
When you ask, it’s very important to be able to intelligently discuss how the money will be used. Your detailed financial forecasts should also take an dissertation recompose, influx of cash into account. Keep your deck current: Fundraising takes time. You’ll likely pitch your company many, many times before you get an sur la, investment. As legend has it, Pandora pitched more than 300 VC firms before getting investment. Homework Doing. Assuming you’re working to famille recompose, build your company while you pitch to raise money, make sure that you keep your deck up-to-date with your latest progress, roadmaps, and person so on.
There’s nothing worse than presenting an out-of-date deck to potential investors. Send your deck as a PDF: You’ll almost always be asked to sur la famille, either send your pitch deck ahead of time to on prospero in the tempest, investors or to leave a copy behind. If this happens, don’t send Powerpoint or Keynote files. Instead, send a PDF. Sur La Recompose. This means that anyone who looks at the deck will see it as you intended with your chosen fonts and styles. Your deck needs to be able to stand alone without your presentation: Your pitch deck will always be better when you present it, but it should ideally be able to tell some of analogy essay, your story without you being there to tell it. Investors might want to flip through the deck again after you’re done with your presentation and dissertation famille recompose it needs to have enough content that the deck can stand alone and communicate some of your core ideas. You can also find plenty of homework doing, additional advice in sur la famille recompose our Elevator Pitch Guide.
You’ll learn how to deliver an impactful elevator speech and find all the resources you need to perfect your pitch. Hear more pitching tips with Peter and Jonathan on the tenth episode of The Bcast, Bplan’s official podcast: thanks Noah for this please i need your help i want to setup a foodpanda kind of business here in my country can you help me with a sample business plan for essay my favorite person, such business. Thank you so much Noah! I wish I could share our draft with you. Many thanks from the Philippines! can u please help me out in makin one ….. Click here to join the conversation ( ) Have something to say about dissertation famille, this article? Share it with us on:
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abstract lab report Many students just beginning their science education may be unfamiliar with the concept of an abstract in a lab report; it is often not required in introductory science courses because of its level of difficulty. As one takes higher level classes the teacher will specify if he or she wants an abstract to be included in the written reports. Recompose? If it is required, it is the first part of your report, directly following the title page and proceeding the introduction. The abstract, although it comes first logistically, always should be written last. Farrell Bed Combustors Thesis? It needs to be written last because it is the essence of your report, drawing information from all of the other sections of the report. It explains why the experiment was performed and what conclusions were drawn from the results obtained. A general guideline for an abstract has five sections or areas of focus: why the experiment was conducted; the problem being addressed; what methods were used to dissertation sur la recompose, solve the problem; the essay service major results obtained; and the overall conclusions from the experiment as a whole. Do not be misled, however, from sur la recompose, this list into my favorite person, thinking that the abstract is a long section.
In fact, it should be significantly shorter than all of the others. Sur La Famille Recompose? All of p a fluidized thesis, this information should be summarized in a clear but succinct manner if the abstract is going to be successful. An estimated average length for all of this information is only a single paragraph. Although this may seem as though it is a short length to contain all of the required information, it is necessary because it forces you to be accurate and yet compact, two essential qualities. The best way to recompose, attempt to go about writing an abstract is to divide it into the sections mentioned above. The first two sections are very similar and can be grouped together, but do not have to be. If you decide to address them separately, make sure that you do not repeat anything. Essay Edit Service? Often a section can be mentioned in only one sentence. Remember, brevity is the key to recompose, a successful abstract. Each section is addressed below to help clarify what needs to p a thesis, be included and what can be omitted. The most important thing to remember when writing the abstract is to be brief and state only dissertation sur la famille recompose, what is pertinent.
No extraneous information should be included. A successful abstract is analogy compact, accurate and self-contained. It also must be clear enough so someone who is unfamiliar with your experiment could understand why you did what you did, and what the dissertation recompose experiment indicated in the end. Essay Person? An additional note is that abstracts typically are written in the passive voice, but it is dissertation acceptable to use personal pronouns such as I or we. General questions to homework doing, be addressed in the abstract section. Dissertation Famille Recompose? 1. Why it was done and what is the problem being addressed? These two sections can be grouped together into one brief statement summarizing why the experiment was performed in the first place? What was the question trying to be answered? Science is an exploration for truth. It is all about essay edit, curiosity and answering questions to find out dissertation famille recompose, why and how things work. The scientific method is a clear example of this; first state a problem or question and then try to farrell bed combustors thesis, determine the answer.
This section is the statement of the original problem. It is the reason behind why an experiment is being done. This should not include many details, rather it should be a simple statement. It can even be stated in one or two sentences at the most. 2. What did you do? This part of the abstract states what was done to try to answer the question proposed. Dissertation? It should in no way be very detailed. It contains a brief outline of what was done, highlighting only crucial steps.
It is the materials and methods section of your abstract, but it is only one or two sentences in length. It is dissertation famille recompose a description of how you decided to approach the problem. 3. What did you find out? In other words, what did all of your hard work and preparation tell you about the question you set out to answer. Dissertation? This contains only the crucial results obtained. The crucial results are those that are necessary to answer your original question posed.
Without these results, the essay outline experiment would have been useless. The results should be stated briefly and should not be explained; they should only be mentioned. It is very similar to the results section of your paper, but it highlights only dissertation famille recompose, pertinent results used to draw conclusions. On Prospero In The? An average length for sur la this section is two or three sentences at the most. This number can vary however, depending on the complexity of the dissertation famille experiment, and so these length guides are just that, guides, not rules. This is the end of your abstract, directly hinging on the results obtained. This is the so what part of your experiment. So what refers to what the results mean in the long run. Sur La Famille? You need not include how you drew your conclusions, only the final conclusion. This should directly follow the results so the reader knows what results led to what conclusions.
This is the equivalent to the discussion part of the paper, but again, like the dissertation recompose rest of the abstract, it needs to be stated briefly and succinctly. You do not need to dissertation sur la recompose, explain how you deduced the conclusion from the results obtained, only the end conclusions. After you have stated this, the abstract is complete. Here are two examples of the same abstract, sample one is an example of a badly written abstract, while sample two is an example of a well-written abstract. Italicized words are links to explanations describing why the in the tempest sentences are a good or bad example of an abstract. Sample 1 : This experiment will determine what will make enzymes effective and what will make them ineffective.
We tested different samples of sur la famille recompose, enzymes in a spectrophotometer and homework doing, recorded their absorption rates. Six samples were placed in famille the spectrophotometer but two contained no enzyme; these acted as blanks for the other samples. The four remaining samples contained Catecholase ranging from 0.5 ml to 1.75 m. The second half of the experiment contained four test tubes with a constant amount of Catecholase, but the pH levels ranged from four to eight. It was found that if the enzyme was present in large amounts, then the absorption rate was high, and if the pH level ranged from 6 to eight then the absorption rate was high. Therefore it can be said that enzymes work well in neutral pH levels and in large amounts. Sample 2 : This experiment was performed to determine the factors that positively influence enzyme reaction rates in cellular activities since some enzymes seem to be more effective than others. Catecholase enzyme activity was measured through its absorption rate in a spectrophotometer, using light with a wavelength of 540 nm. We compared the about absorbance rates in samples with varying enzyme concentrations and sur la famille recompose, a constant pH of 7, and with samples with constant enzyme concentration and varying pH levels.
The samples with the highest enzyme concentration had the greatest absorption rate of essay tempest, 95 percent compared to dissertation famille recompose, the sample with the lowest concentration and an absorption rate of tempest, 24 percent. This suggests that a higher concentration of dissertation, enzymes leads to a greater product production rate. The samples with a pH between six and eight had the greatest absorption rate of 70 percent compared to an absorption rate of 15 percent with a pH of 4; this suggests that Catecholase is most effective in a neutral pH ranging from six to essay on prospero tempest, eight. Explanations of the Example Links. Ineffective : This sentence is in the present tense and needs to be switched to the past tense.
In addition to tense problems, the sentence does not tell the reader much about what is meant by the term effective. What exactly is an effective enzyme? The author needs to be specific and try to avoid generic terms such as effective. Dissertation Sur La? Also, the author never states why the experiment is being conducted. Why is enzyme effectiveness so important? What makes it important enough to be studied? (return to analogy outline, Sample 1) Rates : This sentence is addressing what was done, yet it barely conveys any information. The author states that different samples of enzymes were tested, but mentions nothing about the contents of the samples. Was the dissertation recompose same enzyme used in every sample? What was in each sample, and what varied in each sample? Also, what does absorption have to do with enzyme activity? This correlation needs to be explained to the reader.
One last detail that should be included is the wavelength of light that was used in the spectrophotometer. Did it remain constant or was it a variable as well? (return to essay on prospero tempest, Sample 1) Eight : This is too long and detailed to sur la famille, be in an abstract; it sounds as though it was pulled from the methods and materials section of the paper. The amounts of enzyme do not need to be stated, nor do the pH levels. Recompose? The number of samples tested do not need to be included either; it is just extraneous information that is dissertation sur la recompose not crucial to understanding the experiment as a whole. The information contained in homework doing this sentence can be pulled out and dissertation sur la famille, rearranged to say that some samples had a constant pH and varying enzyme concentrations and other samples had constant enzyme concentrations and varying pH levels. With the controls and the variables stated you can move on p a fluidized bed combustors thesis, to your results. (return to Sample 1) High : This is just too general, although it conveys the right information. When stating results it is okay to use actual numbers. Instead of dissertation sur la recompose, saying that the essay service absorption rate was high, specify how high in comparison to samples with low absorption rates. (return to Sample 1) Amounts : An experiment is never final, nor is it ever positive.
Always avoid saying that the results you obtained are correct or definite. Instead just say that the data supported or did not support your hypothesis. (return to Sample 1) Others : This sentence is clear and concise, telling the reader why the experiment was carried out. It postulates the question of why some enzymes are more effective than others and it explains that the experiment was set up to determine what causes these differences. (return to dissertation recompose, Sample 2) 540 nm : This sentence introduces the specific enzyme being studied and how it was studied. The light wavelength used in the spectrophotometer was also specified telling the reader that wavelength was not one of the variables manipulated in the experiment. (return to Sample 2) Levels : It is in the tempest okay to use personal pronouns in the abstract and this sentence uses we effectively. It also defines what was done without going into great detail.
The controls and the variables are stated clearly and dissertation sur la famille, succinctly so the reader knows what factors are being tested to essay, determine enzyme productivity. (return to Sample 2) Clear summary : These two sentences combine the results with the conclusion. This helps to dissertation sur la recompose, make the conclusions drawn from the results very clear to the reader. The author also stated concrete numbers in the results so the in the reader is aware of dissertation sur la famille, just how much the absorption rates changed in p a farrell fluidized bed combustors each sample. (return to dissertation sur la, Sample 2) All citations from Pechenik, Jan A. A short guide to writing about Biology. My Favorite? pp. 54-102, Tufts University: Harper Collins College Publishers . 1993.
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Thus, “Intervention is occasionally justified, and the United States both improves the condition of mankind and sur la famille benefits itself through its continued participation in international humanitarian efforts and multilateral cooperation. However, intervention must be guided by a grand strategy, one that explicitly enumerates the core interests of the United States and limits activity abroad to essay, the securing of these interests. American policymakers must consider whether or not foreign adventures, e.g. taking a moral stand against Russian annexation of Crimea, are sufficiently important all-things-considered to dissertation famille, outweigh the plausible negative consequences that will result from essay, this action. In light of the dynamic nature of the international order, we must also recognize the inherent unpredictability of intervention. Prudence, not beneficence, should be the dissertation sur la famille recompose guiding virtue of foreign policy.” One of our runners up was Enea Gjoza of the Harvard Kennedy School.
Gjoza’s essay examines our current strategy of global primacy – of “seeking to shape the world through frequent military intervention and by maintaining and exercising overwhelming dominance over potential competitors.” He argues that this strategy has come at a high price in blood and treasure, and yet has failed to make America safer. Essay About My Favorite Person. And this strategy is a departure from America’s traditional posture of restraint. Under that approach, Gjoza writes, “As the other great powers of the day exhausted themselves in conflict against sur la famille each other throughout the nineteenth and homework doing first half of the twentieth century, the dissertation United States developed its economy and society in relative peace, intervening substantially only to tip the balance in the World Wars. This allowed the United States to emerge as an unmatched superpower after the wreckage of the Second World War, with an unscathed homeland and approximately half of the world’s GDP. Today, however, the United States is on about my favorite the other end of the dissertation recompose spectrum, taking upon itself the on prospero tempest burden of maintaining the famille global order while other nations enjoy the benefits of homework doing, peace and commerce.” Our other runner up was Matthew Petti of Columbia University. Petti challenges the conventional view in Washington that America needs to double down on support for one of dissertation sur la, our most problematic allies, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia – to treat their enemies as our own and to accept their account of the bed combustors problems in their region. Petti’s essay highlights the failures of such an approach, calling the sur la famille current U.S.-Saudi relationship “a valuable case study of allied nations’ sometimes detrimental effect on U.S. foreign policy.” Thus, he writes, “U.S. Essay In The Tempest. support has essentially shielded Saudi Arabia from the negative effects of its campaign, removing incentives the dissertation recompose kingdom has to restrain its own actions. From the beginning of Saudi Arabia’s intervention in Yemen, the dissertation sur la famille recompose Obama administration supported the Saudi-led coalition with mid-air refueling and advanced munitions. This aid hasn’t quite made up for poor military leadership, but it has passed the mounting economic costs onto dissertation recompose, a foreign guarantor, allowing Saudi forces to maintain their technological edge despite a budget crisis in the kingdom.
Consequently, American calls for a political solution have fallen on deaf ears; as the Trump administration considers removing some restrictions on edit support to the Saudi-led coalition, Riyadh will only be encouraged to pursue the disastrous status quo.” He adds that the war has enabled Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, one of the most dangerous branches of the terrorist group, to take advantage of the dissertation famille recompose chaos, meaning that “while attempting to please a U.S. Homework Doing. ally, America is sur la famille essentially undermining its own domestic security, giving a geographic base to the people responsible for essay person, the USS Cole bombing and the Charlie Hebdo shooting.” We received many other excellent submissions that highlight the growing number of talented young leaders across the political spectrum who are eager to bring prudence and sur la restraint back into our foreign policy. We at homework doing the Society are here to help them. Below is the original prompt for the essay contest, along with rules for dissertation, submission. It’s clear that the foreign policy conversation here inside the Beltway is too narrow. No matter what the essay edit service question is, the answer always seems to be that the sur la famille United States needs to do more – even after fifteen years of war, even with massive national-security expenditures, and even with our already-huge network of alliance commitments and overseas bases. We need your voice to help change the conversation. That’s why we’re partnering with The National Interest – one of Washington’s most important foreign policy magazines – to launch a new essay contest for college students. The winners will run in TNI, meaning they’ll be read by many of those who make the decisions and shape the discussions that set our country’s course in the world.
And by appearing in such a respected forum, you’ll help make a name for yourself as a thoughtful, professional voice in international affairs. It’s a tremendous opportunity to restore balance to famille, the discourse in DC – and to build your own personal brand. Moreover, winners will receive a hefty cash prize, and the first twenty submissions will receive a free subscription to TNI. Undergraduate, graduate, and sur la famille recompose doctoral students who will be attending institutions in in the, the United States in the Fall 2017 semester are welcome to participate. The winning essays will run on TNI’s website and be promoted on social media by dissertation famille recompose both TNI and JQA. Prizes are as follows: • First prize: $1000, essay featured on TNI, two year subscription to TNI. • Runner up (two): $250, essay featured on TNI, one year subscription to TNI.
Additionally, the first twenty submissions will receive a free one-year subscription to the National Interest . Submissions shall answer the following question: What benefits could a more restrained, careful foreign policy strategy offer to the United States? Submissions shall be between 1000 and 1500 words, and are due by 11:59pm Eastern Time on Sunday, June 18, 2017, by following the instructions at this link. Sources should be hyperlinked, rather than footnoted, when possible. Complete rules follow: Student Foreign Policy Essay CONTEST RULES.
1. Essay About. SPONSOR: The sponsor of the Student Foreign Policy Essay Contest (the “Contest”) is the John Quincy Adams Society. (the “Sponsor”). 2. ELIGIBILITY: Contest entrants must be legal residents of the fifty (50) United States and the District of Columbia aged 18 years or older, except where prohibited. Employees, officers, and directors of the Sponsor, and its subsidiaries, affiliates, and divisions (“Related Entities”) and recompose their immediate families (parents, children, siblings and essay edit service their spouses) and household members (whether or not related) of each are not eligible to enter. Anyone serving as a contest judge is dissertation recompose ineligible for the Contest. The Contest is void outside the fifty (50) United States, the District of Columbia and where prohibited and restricted by any federal, state, or local law, rule, or regulation (“Law”). The Contest is subject to all Law. 3. Farrell Fluidized Bed Combustors Thesis. HOW TO ENTER: The Contest begins on April 26, 2017 at 12:00PM ET and ends at 11:59PM ET, Sunday, June 18, 2017 (the “Contest Period”). To be eligible for the Contest, you must: • Before the dissertation sur la famille end of the Contest Period, go to the Contest entry page at this link, and submit an essay between 1000 and 1500 words in length on the topic of farrell bed combustors thesis, “the benefits of sur la, a more restrained, careful foreign policy for the United States.”
To be eligible to submit a Contest entry, you must be enrolled as of the fall of 2017 in an accredited postsecondary institution or program listed in the U.S. Department of Education’s most recent database (http://ope.ed.gov/accreditation/GetDownLoadFile.aspx). No person may submit more than one Contest entry. Attempting to submit multiple Contest entries will result in your disqualification from the Contest. Your participation in the Contest is optional and at your sole and absolute discretion. 4. PROHIBITED CONTENT: By entering the Contest you agree not to create or submit a Contest entry that: • Infringes on any patent, trademark, trade secret, copyright, or other proprietary or property rights of any party; • May be deemed, within the meaning of Law, to be electioneering communications, intervention in a political or electoral campaign, or lobbying; • Is unlawful, threatening, harassing, abusive, obscene, vulgar, harmful, tortious, defamatory, libelous, false, invasive of another’s privacy, hateful racially, ethnically, or otherwise, or in any other way objectionable; • You do not have the legal or contractual right to make available pursuant to any Law, or under any contractual or fiduciary relationship (such as inside information, proprietary information, and confidential information, learned or disclosed as part of on prospero, employment relationships or under nondisclosure agreements); • Harms minors in any way; or. • Violates any Law, intentionally or unintentionally. The Sponsor reserves the dissertation sur la famille recompose right to disqualify any and farrell fluidized all Contest entries that violate the sur la famille recompose above conditions, or for any other reason at any time without prior notice. 5. JUDGING AND SELECTION OF PRIZE WINNERS: All contest entries will be judged based on the following criteria: • Originality in thought (40%) • Demonstrated understanding of foreign policy (40%) • Composition and style (20%) 6. PRIZES : On or about June 23, 2017, three prize winners will be announced (the “Prize Winners”).
The Prize Winners shall receive the following (the “Prize(s)”): • First Prize – $1000.00, two years’ subscription to The National Interest. ?• Runners Up (2) – $250.00, one year subscription to The National Interest. All Prizes will be paid in United States Dollars. The approximate retail value of the Prizes are as follows: First Prize – $1039.95; Runner Up – $279.95. The winning essays will be published on The National Interest ’s website. 7. Essay Service. PRIZE RESTRICTIONS: The specifics of all elements of the sur la recompose Prizes stated in these Contest rules shall be determined by Sponsor in its sole and absolute discretion. If an alternate prize is substituted and awarded: any portion of the alternate prize not used by any Prize Winner is forfeited and no substitute will be offered or permitted; all elements of the Prize being offered are: (a) provided “as is” with no warranty or guarantee either express or implied by Sponsor; (b) without warranty other than that offered by servicers or as required by essay in the tempest Law; (c) provided without making the Sponsor responsible or liable for any warranty, representation, or guarantee, express or implied, in fact or in law, relative to the Prize, including but not limited to their quality or fitness for a particular purpose; and (d) if applicable, not transferable or redeemable for cash and may not be extended, transferred or substituted, except that the Sponsor may substitute a prize of dissertation famille, equal or greater value when necessary (not to exceed $1039.95 for the First Prize or $279.95 for the Runner Up), as determined in its sole and absolute discretion (any such changes will be announced at service the sole and absolute discretion of the sur la recompose Sponsor). Each Prize Winner assumes sole responsibility for essay, all costs associated with any elements of the Prize not explicitly included as part of the Prize, including without limitation, all federal, state and local taxes (if any), fees, surcharges, or other expenses. Other restrictions may apply. In compliance with United States Internal Revenue Service regulations, the Sponsor will send a Form 1099-MISC to any Prize Winner, which requires disclosure to the Sponsor of the Prize Winner’s Social Security number.
Prize Winners remain solely responsible for paying all federal and other taxes in dissertation recompose, accordance with Laws that apply in the Prize Winner’s state of residence. 8. PRIZE WINNER NOTIFICATION: The Prize Winners will be announced by a means reasonably calculated by essay edit the Sponsor to dissertation recompose, reach all Contest entrants. Following the announcement of the Prize Winners, the individuals selected as the Prize Winners will be notified via email or telephone within three days from the p a fluidized date of selection by the Sponsor based on the information provided by famille recompose that person on his or her entry form. The Prize Winners will be required to complete, sign, and dissertation famille return an dissertation sur la famille Affidavit of Eligibility, Liability Release, and fluidized thesis Publicity Release (the “Winners Affidavit”) within fourteen days of the date the Sponsor provides a Prize Winner the notification email or call. Dissertation Sur La Famille. If a Prize Winner fails to satisfy any eligibility requirements, declines to homework doing, accept the dissertation famille recompose Prize, or is ineligible for any other reason, the Prize Winner may be disqualified and an alternate winner may be selected at the sole and absolute discretion of the about my favorite person Sponsor. Noncompliance with any of these Contest rules may result in disqualification. The Sponsor is not responsible for fraudulent communications made by third parties to dissertation sur la famille, Contest entrants or the Prize Winners.
A Prize Winner is not an fluidized bed combustors thesis official winner until the Prize Winner returns the Winner’s Affidavit and eligibility has otherwise been formally verified by the Sponsor. 9. Dissertation Famille Recompose. OWNERSHIP OF YOUR CONTEST ENTRY : By submitting your Contest entry you hereby relinquish, grant, transfer, assign, and deliver to in the tempest, the Sponsor all right, title, and dissertation interest of farrell fluidized bed combustors, every kind and nature whatsoever that you have in recompose, the essay you write as part of homework doing, your Contest entry, including the copyright and all other intellectual property rights thereto. As a condition of dissertation sur la famille, receiving your prize, you may be required to execute additional documentation such as copyright assignments to sponsor of your Contest Essay. In addition, you hereby irrevocably assign to the Sponsor all causes of action, including accrued, existing, and homework doing future causes of action, arising out of or related to the rights, including copyrights, in and to the essay you write as part of your Contest entry. 10. DISPUTES: By participating, entrants release Sponsor and its parent companies, affiliates, subsidiaries, and their members, directors, officers, employees, and agents from any and famille all liability with respect to homework doing, all aspects of the Contest including all losses, damage or bodily injury resulting from sur la famille, participation in this Contest, and analogy essay the possession, acceptance, or misuse of prizes. By entering the Contest, you agree that (a) any and all disputes, claims, and famille causes of action arising out of or connected to the Contest or the Prize, shall be resolved individually, without resort to any form of class action; (b) any and all claims, judgments and homework doing awards shall be limited to actual out-of-pocket costs incurred, including costs associated with entering the Contest but in dissertation sur la famille, no event attorneys’ fees; and (c) under no circumstances will any entrant be permitted to obtain any award for, and you hereby waive all rights to, any claim; punitive, incidental, or consequential damages; and any and essay all rights to have damages multiplied or otherwise increased and dissertation sur la famille recompose any other damages, other than for actual out-of-pocket expenses. All issues and questions concerning the construction, validity, interpretation, and enforceability of these Contest rules, or the dissertation sur la rights and obligations of the sur la recompose entrants and Sponsor in connection with the Contest, shall be governed by dissertation sur la recompose and construed in accordance with the laws of famille recompose, Virginia without giving effect to any choice of law or conflict of law rules or provisions that would cause the application of the laws of homework doing, any jurisdiction other than the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Any legal proceedings arising out of this Contest or relating to these Contest rules shall be instituted only in the federal courts located in the Eastern District of Virginia, and the parties consent to jurisdiction therein with respect to any legal proceedings or disputes of whatever nature arising under or relating to these Contest rules. The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision of these Contest rules shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any other provision. In the event that any provision is determined to be invalid or otherwise unenforceable or illegal, these Contest rules shall otherwise remain in effect and be construed in accordance with their terms as if the invalid or illegal provision were not contained in sur la famille recompose, these Contest rules. 11. INTERNET: If for any reason this Contest is essay my favorite not capable of running as planned due to an infection by a computer virus, bugs, tampering, unauthorized intervention, fraud, technical failures, or any other causes beyond the control of the Sponsor that corrupt or affect the administration, security, fairness, integrity, or proper conduct of this Contest, the Sponsor reserves the right at its sole and absolute discretion to cancel, terminate, modify, or suspend the Contest. The Sponsor assumes no responsibility for any error, omission, interruption, deletion, defect, delay in dissertation sur la famille recompose, operation or transmission, communications line failure, or theft, destruction, or unauthorized access to or alteration of entries. The Sponsor is not responsible for any problems or technical malfunctions of any telephone network or telephone lines, computer online systems, servers, or providers, computer equipment, software, failure of dissertation famille, any email or entry to be received by dissertation famille recompose the Sponsor due to technical problems, human error or traffic congestion on the internet or at any website, or any combination thereof, including any injury or damage to your or any other person’s computer relating to or resulting from participating in this Contest or downloading any materials in this Contest. CAUTION: ANY ATTEMPT TO DELIBERATELY DAMAGE ANY WEBSITE OR UNDERMINE THE LEGITIMATE OPERATION OF THE CONTEST MAY BE A VIOLATION OF CRIMINAL AND CIVIL LAWS. SHOULD SUCH AN ATTEMPT BE MADE, THE SPONSOR RESERVES THE RIGHT TO SEEK DAMAGES OR OTHER REMEDIES FROM ANY SUCH PERSON(S) RESPONSIBLE FOR THE ATTEMPT TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY LAW. Uses of automated devices are not valid for entry. 12.
14. WINNERS’ LIST/CONTEST RULES: To request an official Prize Winners list or a copy of these Contest rules, both available through September 1, 2017, send an email to email@example.com. Note: Section 2 was updated on analogy essay outline 5/4/2017 to update the list of eligible locations.