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Happy Endings Margaret Atwood Essay. ‘Happy Endings’ is person, one of Margaret Atwood’s most frequently-anthologized stories because it is so unusual. In form, it isn’t so much a story as an instruction manual on how to write one. In content, it is a powerful observation on life. Thesis. The story is broken up into six possible life scenarios plus some concluding remarks. In scenario A, John meets Mary and they have a perfect life, living together devotedly until they die.
In scenario B, John sleeps with Mary, whom he doesn’t love; he treats her abysmally, she commits suicide, and about my favorite, he marries Madge, whom he does love, and ‘everything continues as in A.’ In scenario C, Mary sleeps with John, who is amazon resume, married to essay my favorite person Madge, who has become boring. Mary only sleeps with John because she pities him, and she is really in thesis in filipino love with James, who rides a motorcycle. John discovers Mary and James in bed together and shoots them before turning the gun on himself. Madge goes on about my favorite, to marry a nice man named Fred, and we continue as in essay edit service A. In scenario D, Fred and Madge have no interpersonal problems at all, but their house is swept away by a tidal wave. They emerge ‘wet and dripping and grateful, and essay about, continue as in A.’ In scenario E, Fred is found to have heart problems. Madge nurses him until he dies, after which she selflessly devotes herself to volunteer work for the rest of her life. It is in this scenario, incidentally, that Atwood begins to break down this encapsulated version of ‘fifty ways to write a story.’ Maybe it’s not Fred with the heart problems, she suggests; maybe it’s Madge who has cancer. Essay In The Tempest. Maybe she’s not kind and understanding; maybe she’s guilty and confused.
Or maybe Fred is. Maybe Fred, after Madge’s death, devotes himself to about bird watching rather than volunteer work. Linking For Essay Paragraphs. We are obviously getting the point that none of this really matters. In scenario F, Atwood hammers this point home. ‘If you think this is all too bourgeois, make John a revolutionary and Mary a counterespionage agent and essay person, see how far that gets you. Essay Edit Service. . . Essay About. . On Prospero In The Tempest. You’ll still end up with A.’ What is the common denominator between all these scenarios? In case you missed it, Atwood sums it up in her concluding remarks. ‘John and Mary die.
John and Mary die. John and Mary die.’ As in ‘The Age of essay about my favorite person Lead,’ ‘Happy Endings’ forces us to question the point of life. Essay About Person. Every story, carried to its ultimate logical conclusion, has the my favorite person same ending, because all lives have the same ending. We may die in essay edit the heat of battle; we may die in our sleep. We may die in infancy, in essay about a gang war, in a nursing home. Linking Words Paragraphs. But we’re going to die. The story isn’t in the ending — it’s in essay about person what we do on my favorite, the way there. So you may have found that this week’s reading left you with quite a few questions, such as, “What did I just read?” Margaret Atwood’s “Happy Endings” is about person, not a typical short story. Edit Service. In fact, we could even raise the essay person question of whether it actually is a short story or not. “Happy Endings” is an example of metafiction. You may want to think of metafiction this way: it is a writer writing about writing.
To clarify, in metafiction, an essay tempest, author writes a story in order make the my favorite reader think about the nature of linking a story. With metafiction, the my favorite author becomes self-reflective about the act of writing. Did you notice those moments in “Happy Endings” when Atwood comments on essay, the story she is writing? (For example, in plot C, the voice of the author mentions, “…this is the thin part of the plot, but it can be dealt with later” .) Atwood’s goal is for the reader to essay about contemplate what is the person essence of person a story. “If you want a happy ending, try A.” “Happy Endings” primarily consists of 6 different bare-bone plots stemming from the very basic catalyst: “John and Mary meet.” Plot A – the one recommended it we want a “happy ending” – presents the words for essay paragraphs ideal married life of Mary and John: they enjoy well-paying, fulfilling careers;the value of their house skyrockets, their children “turn out about my favorite person, well;” they go one vacation;and even get to retire. Thesis. (Heck, their sex-life together doesn’t even fade!) Atwood offers Plot A as the stereotypical, cliched “happy ending.” The problem with Plot A, at least as far as storytelling goes, there’s no drama. Here the couple does not face any conflict, crisis, or tension. Without crisis, there’s no character development. John and Mary become merely empty names; there’s no reason to person care for them. While a “happy ending,” Plot A falls completely flat. (Plot A reminds me of a quotation from Leo Tolstoy: “All families resemble one another, each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.”) Plots B through F test out different directions that events can go after “John and Mary meet.” Each of these plots are remarkably predictable, mainly since they are based on cliched, stock characters. Plot B places Mary in on prospero in the the role of the unrequited lover, just hoping that John, the essay about my favorite insensitive male, will come to see how much she truly cares for tempest, him. (The terms that Mary’s friends use to describe John – “a rat, a pig, a dog” – are unimaginative.) In Plot C, John takes on the part of the insecure, middle-aged man seeking assurance from a much younger woman, Mary. Plot D is the about person well recognizable disaster story, like last year’s film “The Impossible”.
If you are a fan of Nicholas Sparks’ “The Notebook,” you are already familiar with Plot E. Essay Tempest. Finally, Plot F resembles that of the story of lovers caught up in the political turmoils of about person their time. However, whatever the plot maybe, we always end with Plot A. Words For Essay Paragraphs. The names of the essay about my favorite person characters may change and “in between you may get a lustful, brawling saga of passionate involvement, a chronicle of amazon resume our times, sort of” but the ending to the story will always be the same (767). Is this because, according to Atwood, readers will only accept this idealized ending for tales of romance? Could Atwood be commenting on readers’ expectations for how the essay about my favorite story will end when two lovers meet? Moreover, is Atwood claiming there is something false about thesis in filipino 2 Plot A? Atwood emphatically states near the end of “Happy Endings” is that “the only authentic ending” is: “John and about person, May die. John and Mary die. John and my favorite person, Mary die.” Adopting a bleak outlook, Atwood argues that the one ending that we all will share in and so rings true is death. Now rather than leave us on that depressing note, Atwood offers a bit of hope, “So much for endings.
Beginnings are always more fun” (676). If you consider this statement, Atwood is right. Generally, romantic tales don’t open with the about person couple being married, with a home and children. Instead, the story of a couple centers on how they get together – what are the obstacles, the emotional turmoil, they face to reach their Plot A? From William Shakespeare to Jane Austen to Nicholas Sparks, marriage is a conclusion not a beginning. Thesis. The drama lies in everything the lovers have to do to reach that point. “Now try How and Why” In the final three paragraphs, Atwood identifies where the essence of a story lies. No surprise at all that she dismisses plot as formulaic, just a mere sequence of events – “a what and about, a what and a what” (676). Looking back on over Plots A through F, that is all she gives us.
John and Mary’s characters are left undeveloped; again, we could interchange their names with those of Madge and Fred, while leaving the plot the same. We don’t care about John and Mary because we don’t have the chance to get to know them. Also, at edit, the end of each plot Atwood leaves us with the question of what is the point of the story. There’s an emptiness felt after reading each plot. Why tell us the story? Generally, we, as readers, look for authors through their writings to give us some insight into our world. Stories have themes, morals, profound messages that go beyond just the essay about person bones of the plot. Consider some of the essay my favorite short stories that we have read so far this term. Is it just that Chopin gives us the story of Louise Mallard’s dying after learning her husband is essay, still alive? Is the importance of “The Yellow Wallpaper” limited to just Gilman’s narrator’s going mad through seeing a woman trapped within the wallpaper? Why does the story of Emily Grierson’s keeping the body of her murder lover in bed with her matter?
For Atwood, the plot becomes the vehicle for the author to shows us a new truth. … Happy Endings Margaret Atwood Analysis. This detailed literature summary also contains Further Reading on Happy Endings by 2, Margaret Atwood. Margaret Atwood’s “Happy Endings” first appeared in the 1983 Canadian collection, Murder in the Dark, and it was published in 1994 for American audiences in Good Bones and Simple Murders. Subtitled “Short Fiction and Prose Poems,” Murder in the Dark featured four types of works: autobiographical sketches, travel notes, experimental pieces addressing the nature of writing, and about person, short pieces dealing with typical Atwood themes, notably the relationship between the sexes. Essay Tempest. “Happy Endings,” which is essentially a self-referential story framework, falls into the third category. In several thumbnail sketches of different marriages, all of which achieve a traditional “happy ending,” Atwood references both the mechanics of writing, most particularly plot, and the effects of essay about gender stereotyping. In earlier works, including the novel Bodily Harm, as well as speeches, Atwood discusses the person writer’s relationship to society.
She defined the artist, in part, as “the guardian of the moral and ethical sense of the community.” In “Happy Endings,” Atwood fulfills this role with a challenge that she throws out to about my favorite those writers who rely on the stereotypical characterization of men and women and to the reader who accepts such gender typing. At the same time, she challenges other writers to more closely examine typical literary convention. Theme. the “happy” couple in thesis in filipino 2 “Happy Endings,” whether comprised of John and Mary, John and Madge, or Madge and Fred, enjoys the trappings of middle-class values and represents this element of society. The husband and wife hold professional jobs, earn good money, and about my favorite, make sound investments that afford them some of life’s luxuries, such as nice vacations and amazon resume, a relaxing retirement. My Favorite Person. Even in the more troublesome aspects of these stories, the couples manifest their middle-class values.
In version C, John’s marital crisis is brought on by the fact that he feels his life is edit service, settled and my favorite person, dull. This mid-life angst drives him to attempt to thesis boost his self-esteem through an affair with a much-younger woman. Despite the middle-class values that permeate the piece, only in version F does Atwood frankly address them. My Favorite. Style. “Happy Endings” is satirical in the way that it makes fun of the naive conception that a person’s, or a couple’s, life can have a simple happy ending.
In version A, John and Mary build a life based on their nice home, rewarding jobs, beloved children, enjoyable vacations, and post-retirement hobbies. They experience one success after another. No problems or difficulties—major let alone minor— are mentioned; as such, their life is completely unreal. Such unreality is thesis, emphasized by the events of version B. While John and Mary do not achieve this happy ending, John does achieve it—but with Madge. And in yet another version, Madge achieves this happy ending with Fred. Although all the individuals bring to their relationships a unique past and set of experiences, each couple eventually achieves the exact same ending described in version A. … Margaret Atwood uses her short story Happy Endings to show that it is not the end of a story that is important it is the middle. She seems to essay my favorite say that the endings are all clichA© that the middle is the part that is unique.
This holds true with literature versus a beach novel although a beach novel and piece of literature may end the words for essay same way it is the rest of the book that makes one different from the other. As she says the true ending is “John and Mary die” the only guarantee in life is death. So since the ending is already known why does it have the essay about person tendency to “steal” the spotlight from the rest of the search thesis story? Sure in some cases people can guess the middle of about a story from the linking for essay ending, if they find someone died in an electric chair they can assume he committed a crime. However if someone dies from heart failure no one can know anything about his life, they may guess the person ate too much junk food, or drank too much but if they don’t know anything else they can’t guess the middle. However if someone knows the middle they can guess the ending, if they are told that person “A” had to essay about person have triple bypass surgery and that person “B” murdered a few people they can make an essay about person, educated guess how each story ends. But even the essay person middle of the story is only part of a greater whole, without the beginning of the story no one can tell why certain events happened and what lead to person “A” to doing “action z”. Atwood also says that what happens is not all-important but how it happens and why it happens. According to Atwood, all the whats are just the plot, one thing that happens after another, however the how and the whys are what really make a story more than a story.
This is the important part, the edit hows and the whys are what makes a story literature with out them it makes no difference if the prose is expertly laid out or not it is all still a story nothing more. The step from story to literature is a gray line and my favorite, is based on personal taste, as Justice Stewart said “I know it when I see it” although he was referring to obscenity it is just as applicable here. The use of story like this to portray the differences in opinion on what makes a story is pure genius on the part of Atwood, what is even more interesting is the fact that it is also considered literature. The main theme in most literature that divides it from the rest of the thesis in filipino 2 stories is that literature tries to about make a specific point, and in doing so forces the reader to think about the point that the author is trying to amazon resume make. In this way it is essay my favorite, easy to linking for essay paragraphs decide what is literature and essay about my favorite, what is words, not, if at the end of a story if the reader’s only about, thought is essay person, “Gee, what a nice story” then it is most definitely not literature, but if instead if the thought is about my favorite, more along the lines of “The author said A, B and C but were they really trying to make a point about D?” it is literature. Although even this test has it’s holes because literature for one person is just a nice story for someone else. As Flannery O’Connor said, “[if you don’t get the enlightenment] just sit back and enjoy the story.” “Happy Endings” is a short story by Margaret Atwood.
It was first published in a 1983 Canadian collection, Murder in about my favorite the Dark. It includes six stories in one, each ending with death. The author believes that this is the about only sure ending to anything. Essay My Favorite Person. The stories are all inter-related, containing the same characters and similar actions. Behind the obvious meaning of about these seemingly pointless stories lies multiple deeper and more profound meanings; exploring, for example, themes of domesticity, welfare, and on prospero, success. It all ends up with John and Mary dying at the end of the story. John – He is one of the main characters of the short story.
In A, he is in love with Mary and is happily married to her. In B, he doesn’t feel the same way Mary does for about, him as he only uses her for her body. He eventually takes a woman named Madge to a restaurant. In the end, he marries her. In C, he is a middle-aged man married to Madge but is in love with twenty-two year old Mary. One day he sees Mary with another man and shoots both of them before shooting himself. Mary – She is the in the tempest main character of the short story. In A, she is essay my favorite, happily married to John and had children with him. In B, Mary is in love with John but is saddened with the fact that he doesn’t love her. In C, she is a twenty-two-year old who is in love with James.
She is shot by John. James – He is a twenty-two year old whom Mary has feelings for. Amazon Resume. He isn’t ready to about settle down and prefers to ride his motorcycle. He wants to be free while he’s still young. Thesis. One day, he and Mary have sex. He is shot by John towards the end. He doesn’t appear anywhere else. Madge – In B, Madge is John’s love interest. She is taken to about person a restaurant and eventually, they get married.
In C, she is John’s wife. In D, she meets a man named Fred. Fred – He is the man Madge meets. In her short story “Happy Endings”, Margaret Atwood simultaneously displays her feelings about not only the art of edit service creative writing, but also the equally artistic act of living one’s life to the fullest. The story, if it can really be called a “story” in essay my favorite the traditional sense of the masters word, immediately breaks the thin wall of author/audience by presenting a completely unique structure: that of an outline or a jumbled notebook. Essay About. By asking the reader, “If you want a happy ending, try A,” Atwood is seemingly giving the reader a choice. Since A must be the happy ending, it implies that there are other, more sinister endings yet to be discovered. In Filipino 2. Appropriately, after the happy ending has completed, there follows five more endings, all of which seem to be quite depressing, but nevertheless end in “everything continues as in A.” Why would Atwood do this? In each of her scenarios, she creates two main characters, John and Mary appropriately boring names for essay person, characters that are so underdeveloped and stereotyped as to be almost comedic.
It would be possible to call them each protagonists, but they are the very definition of flat characters: dull and undeveloped. Search Thesis. In fact, the reader is informed of their personality traits not because Atwood shows them through a conflict or a plot rather, she simply tells them. Lines such as, “She sleeps with him even though she’s not in person love with him,” present the linking words paragraphs type of stock character that Mary or John will assume for said scenario without any mystery involved. By creating such flat characters that differ between scenarios, but still coming back with “everything continues as in A,” Atwood brings up an interesting point: it’s not the destination that matters it’s all the same for everyone it’s the journey. In fact, after presenting all of her mock scenarios for the characters, Atwood abruptly changes tone to tell the reader an important fact: “The only authentic ending is the one presented here: John and about person, Mary die. John and Mary die. Linking Words For Essay. John and Mary die.” After all, at about my favorite person, the end of essay edit every person’s life, regardless of how they lived it or what they experienced, they will encounter death. This is not an example of the work written by essay about person, our professional essay writers. Order a custom essay on Happy Endings by Margaret Atwood written by an expert online. Atwood notices that people tend to not think quite like this, if only because it is not the most comforting of thoughts, and she uses “Happy Endings” to linking words for essay paragraphs allow people a chance to essay about be a bit introspective. “So much for endings.
Beginnings are always more fun. True connoisseurs, however, are known to amazon resume favor the stretch in between, since it’s the hardest to do anything with.” Such is essay person, true for writing; such is true for life. With her unconventional structure, caricatures for characters, and sometimes sarcastic tone, Atwood manages to linking convey one of the most important concepts about life of all. Do not let life become “a what and a what and a what.” Learn to favor the stretch between beginning and end, and then, perhaps, you can make your own happy ending. University/College: University of Chicago. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
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6 Ways to Use a Hobbies and essay about my favorite Interests Section to essay my favorite person Supercharge Your Resume. A funny thing happened the essay about person last time I went job-hunting. I got a call from the owner of an essay about my favorite person advertising agency that I had applied to essay my favorite earlier that week, and he was very excited to talk to me. The funny part is, he didn’t even want to thesis talk about advertising at first. No, he was excited to talk about essay my favorite, kung-fu. Thesis In Filipino 2. You see, the previous year I had earned my black belt in Kung Fu San Soo, and on someone else’s advice, I put that on my resume in about, a special hobbies and interests section. The owner of this ad agency was a long-time Krav Maga practitioner, and we immediately bonded over our shared interest in martial arts. In his words, the amazon resume kung-fu experience showed that I was a go-getter, with the killer instinct that it takes to succeed in about my favorite person, a business development role.
I went in for an interview, and a week later, I had a job, despite competition from several older, more experienced candidates. Now, there were other things I did right, including being better prepared than the essay edit other candidates, winning over the entire team, and proper follow-up, but it was the hobbies and interests section on my resume that got my foot in my favorite, the door and made the owner fall in love with me. There are six purposes that a hobbies and interests section on your resume can serve, and the best resumes will combine several of them. 1. Essay Person. Just stand out. This isn’t hard to essay about person do, as long as your interests include more than just watching TV and going to bars with your friends.
Kung-fu did the masters trick, and I’ve seen other people use karaoke, ballroom dancing, and about person poetry. You can also write something quirky and offbeat, like being in search masters thesis, the Guinness Book of World Records or winning a Settlers of my favorite, Catan tournament. In Filipino. 2. Show interests related to your job. Admittedly, kung-fu didn’t serve this purpose for me, but you might have some interests that are relevant to the job you want. If you’re applying for essay person, a wildlife conservation group, it helps if you say you love hiking and camping. If you’re applying to be a copywriter, letting the hiring manager know that you write short stories for fun will definitely help you make a favorable impression. Essay Edit. Applying for Pandora? Let them know you used to be in about, a band! This is amazon resume highly dependent on the jobs you’re applying for, but it has obvious (and non-obvious) value. First off, it can show skills and knowledge that will be useful on the job. Beyond that, having relevant interests conveys that the job you’re applying for about person, is something you’re truly passionate about and that you’re likely to truly enjoy your work.
Employers care about this for several reasons: it makes you more fun to work with, more productive and hard-working, and more likely to stay a long time. The last is particularly important for millennials, who have a reputation for switching jobs every year or two. 3. Show accomplishments outside of work. Having accomplishments, as opposed to mere interests, shows that you’re an active, hard-working person who spends their spare time achieving things, rather than just vegetating. It shows initiative and discipline, because you still accomplish big things even when nobody is holding a gun to your head (although I did have a fake gun to my head for a few classes- but I digress). This is the difference between studying kung-fu vs. having a black belt. Linking Words Paragraphs. It’s the difference between playing poker and having placed in a major regional tournament. It’s the difference between being interested in fashion and making and selling purses as a hobby (something my sister actually used to do). If you don’t have any big accomplishments in about my favorite, your personal life, start thinking about tempest, how you can get one quickly. Is there a competition you can enter, a website or newsletter you could be featured in, or a person or organization who you can help? 4. Balance out the impression you give.
I learned this from Ramit Sethi, who wrote on about my favorite his resume that he and a friend ran a comedy newsletter in college. Why? Because his resume was otherwise full of things like running a tech startup, writing a personal finance blog, and interning at a large computer company. Combined with giant eyebrows that make him look perpetually stern, it was easy to tempest mistake him for someone who isn’t fun or friendly. It can be hard to essay about person understand how your resume makes you come off, and most recruiters and hiring managers won’t tell you. This is one of many reasons you should have a trusted, successful friend look over your resume. Once you understand how people are likely to see you based on in the your resume, find a way to smooth out your first impression to sound well-rounded. Too serious/stiff? Add something that shows fun and/or humor.
Do you not sound hard-working enough? See item 3- show an accomplishment outside of work. Do you sound like you might be a jerk? Volunteer work will fix that right up. 5. Show that you’re fun and not a workaholic. As mentioned, this was Ramit’s challenge. Paradoxically, the more accomplished you are, the more people are likely to essay about my favorite worry that you have no life outside of work. One of the biggest concerns hiring managers have is essay my favorite likability, so showing that you have a social life can be a significant boost to your chances of getting hired. Moreover, smart managers understand that workaholics actually make terrible employees.
People who have things to my favorite person do outside of essay on prospero, work make the effort to get their work done quickly and efficiently, whereas workaholics tend to drag their feet and manufacture crises just to give themselves (and others) more work to essay do. Hiring managers at well-run companies prefer employees who have fun lives, because those employees get the job done. 6. Express commonalities with hiring managers. Research shows that people like you more if they have something in common with you- even something trivial, like a favorite food. Being able to show that you have something in search thesis, common with one or more of the people making the essay hiring decision can work wonders- not only essay tempest, does it help you get a call back, but the interview becomes dramatically easier. Admittedly, I lucked out with my last job, as I had no idea that the my favorite owner studied Krav Maga until he called me. You can’t force commonalities, but the surest way to find out what you have in common with the hiring manager is to do your research. Read the manager’s LinkedIn profile and newsfeed, Twitter feed if they have one, or just ask former employees of the company for advice- you should be talking to former employees anyway, as they provide the best, most honest source of on prospero tempest, inside information about a company. A hobbies and interests section is one of the my favorite person best ways to thesis differentiate yourself from the my favorite crowd and ensure that companies invite you in for an interview.
Beyond just getting a job, differentiating yourself can result in higher pay, as employers are less likely to view you as replaceable by other job seekers. An ideal hobbies and interests section should include two to four items and fulfill at least four of the six purposes laid out in this article. John Fawkes is thesis in filipino 2 a blogger, career coach, and marketing consultant. He helps people find their dream jobs and about person build careers they love- when he’s not busy practicing his sword fighting and knocking guns out of people’s hands. International branding and reputation management expert who designs and enhances the identities of companies, executives, and professionals. great article something I had never considered before. I always thought the Hobbies section, and the #8220;personal information#8221; section were just wasted space. Essay Edit. Interesting take on essay about person this! Lida Citroen says. Thank you! John has great insights!
Really insightful. It worked for me at an interview once. Take control of the my favorite interview from start to essay my favorite finish. Get my ebook to amazon resume land the job you deserve - $27 value for FREE!
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essay on ethic Credit where credit is due: this information was found at http://www.angelfire.com/ma/Malificent/PR.html , the work of about, a PR student building a website) Ethics in the Field of Public Relations. This essay was the linking words paragraphs product of Writing Studio 209, a course focusing on rhetoric. However, my interest in essay, the topic was piqued during the prior semester.
My p.r. professor delivered a lecture on ethics in amazon resume, the field of public relations; it was this oxymoron that enticed me into researching and proposing a solution to negative connotation that often plagues public relations practitioners. Contemporary public relations is a twentieth-century phenomenon that evolved from the press gentry of the 1800s. Essay About My Favorite. These old-time press agents played upon the credulity of the 2 public in its desire to be entertained, whether or not they were deceived. Advertisements and press releases were often exaggerated to the point of being complete falsifications. In promoting an attraction, press agents dropped multitudes of tickets on the newspaper editors desk along with the releases.
Voluminous publicity for the attraction usually resulted, and reporters, editors, and my favorite person their families flocked to the free entertainment with scant regard for any ethical constraints (Wilcox, Ault, Agee 37). One man, Phineas T. Barnum, exemplified such a press agent to the extreme. Barnum is in filipino 2 considered the master of the pseudoevent, the essay my favorite planned event that occurs primarily for the purpose of being reportedsimilar to the special events held by public relations practitioners of essay in the, today. However, modern-day practitioners like to draw the line of comparison between Barnum and themselves at this point. This hardheaded businessman used deception and about hoax in person, his operations and in his publicity and advertising. Nevertheless, a public thirsting for entertainment permitted his exaggerations and essay my favorite person people were amazed by in filipino the wonders he produced (Wilcox, Ault, Agee 38).
For example, Joice Heath was a slave who claimed to be 161 years old and said she had been George Washingtons nurse. Barnum produced a stained birth certificate as evidence for the public, but after she died, her autopsy disclosed that she was far younger. On the same note, Jumbo, the essay my favorite worlds largest elephant, was brought by linking words for essay paragraphs Barnum from England with enormous publicity. Posters and pamphlets featuring inflated prose exaggerated the animals size (Wilcox, Ault, Agee 38). Roots such as these have created the skepticism with which the public views the field of person, public relations.
Furthermore, it is the duty of practitioners to on prospero tempest, create positive images for businesses and organizations. Therefore, other, more recent issues have augmented Americans mistrust in the business world in general, including the Watergate Affair and the business-and-government-related scandals of the essay about person 1980s, such as the near collapse of the savings and loan industry. The American public is demanding higher ethical practices from business firms and organizations than it did in search masters, the past (Wilcox, Ault, Agee 116). How Public Relations Practitioners are Perceived. Despite pressure from the public, very little empirical evidence on the ethics of public relations practitioners exists. As recently as the essay about person spring of 1988, a Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) task force could only uncover 16 journal articles and two books as initial readings that dealt with ethics issues in length (Pratt, Empirical 230). However, one study conducted in 1989, has revealed the pathetic state of ethics in, and has called into question the credibility, professional integrity and public image of, public relations (229). In the broad field of essay about person, mass communications, of which public relations practitioners are considered a part, the occupation is viewed with cynicism.
For example, an investigation of journalists attitudes toward public relations, conducted in 1975, disclosed generally negative attitudes. In this sample survey, respondents had to rank the perceived respect of 16 occupations and professions; journalists ranked themselves first and public relations practitioners last, while public relations practitioners ranked themselves fourth and journalists third. It has also been reported that college students develop a negative disposition toward public relations early on my favorite, in their college careers. This disposition could be caused by the content of amazon resume, textbooks. In a content analysis of 12 introductory textbooks in about, mass communications, an insidious bias against public relations and a fierce anti-public relations stance was found (229). Even public relations practitioners have doubts about the degree of essay edit, morality in the field.
In a recent survey of practitioners, none of the respondents assigned very high marks to the honesty and ethical standards of essay my favorite person, their colleagues. Fifty-five percent of them viewed the chief executive as the about person most credible source of information about an organization, and only five percent selected a public relations representative (Pratt, Empirical, 230). Ironically, practitioners themselves hold little credence in the ability of their peers to carry out an essential component of essay person, their profession: the essay management of an essay about my favorite person, organizations relationships with its various publics. Often times, the management of these relationships is jeopardized by poor decision-making on search masters, the part of practitioners. Wilcox (119) offers specific examples of the judgment calls with which public relations practitioners are faced. For instance, if the essay about my favorite person company president asks a public relations representative to essay service, write a news release claiming that a new product is four times better than the competition, he/she should be wary. Making extravagant claims about essay about person a product, which cannot be substantiated, should be avoided. Another example could be an American company that wants to increase its visibility and amazon resume market share in Eastern Europe. The director of public relations invites a group of German business editors to visit the firms headquarters with all expenses paid. This is considered permissible by the whole body of practitioners, as long as the visit has legitimate news value, and as long as it furthers the press understanding of the companys operations.
A primary judgment call happens during the job search of a public relations practitioner. To illustrate, if a tobacco company offers someone the highest salary from among his/her potential employers, he/she should not oppose smoking. Person. This could place the person in a position where personal interest is in essay edit service, conflict with an essay about my favorite person, employer or client, and essay on prospero in the fulfilling obligations to essay about person, the employer would be difficult. Dilemmas such as these must be addressed by essay about person practitioners everyday. My Favorite. One might glance at essay edit, these examples and my favorite person wonder were the difficulty in making these decisions lies. Essay About Person. The fact is that not everybody holds the same set of essay about person, personal and/or professional standards.
One person might not see anything wrong with exaggerating a news release for thesis 2 a new product, while another might consider such an act to be dishonest. Studies have been done which categorize public relations practitioners as being either more ethical or less ethical; the factors that have been researched and that provided conclusive evidence include age, years of experience, gender, and individual moral values. About Person. The older and the more years of experience, the more ethical the practitioner. Search Thesis. Similarly, the higher ones individual moral values are, the more ethical ones professional standard will be (Shamir, Reed, Connell 956-953). Female practitioners beliefs were significantly more ethical than those of their male counterparts.
It was also reported that women practiced unethical behavior less often than men (Pratt, Perceptions, 153). In addition to incongruous ethical standards, several other factors serve as possible reasons for the lack of values. A number of practitioners said that because of the competitive environment in essay about my favorite person, which practitioners tend to work, ethics may have low priority (Pratt, Empirical 232). Also, some practitioners blame the linking for essay paragraphs availability, or lack thereof, of good, effective role models, particularly among top business executives, for both practitioners and essay about my favorite society in general. In a nationwide study of U.S. business ethics conducted by Brenner and Molander, respondents reported that the behavior of ones superiors was a primary influence on the making of unethical decisions (Pratt, Empirical, 233). Proposed Solutions to the Ethical Dilemma.
The only way for public relations practitioners to rid themselves of this unethical behavior is to come up with plausible solutions. Public relations practitioners surveyed proposed several suggestions, varying in degrees of amazon resume, severity. First, some respondents said that because ethics in public relations is a reflection of a general decline in values,overall ethics in society should be improved by essay about person instilling moral values in the home (Pratt,Empirical, 232). This, however, would be a difficult task in todays society, due to the deterioration of stable homes. It would be a long-term undertaking, and the results would not be seen for my favorite person years.
Furthermore, this solution could not be taken on solely by public relations practitioners; rather, all of society would have to be willing to pursue greater ethics in each and every household. Another proposed solution deals with education. Practitioners believe that stronger exploration of person, ethics issues in high school and college curricula, more ethics awareness among upper management, and better clarification on essay on prospero in the, what is or is not acceptable behavior would solve the problem (231). After completing a media ethics course, mass communications students displayed an increase in the importance they placed on moral and social issues, an increase their awareness of such issues, and shifts in their value system to approximate more closely the value system affording the about greatest level of ethical self-esteem (232). Thus, similar results could be achieved if current practitioners were involved in a continuing education program that offered courses in ethics. However, I believe that the positive results of such courses would be like temporary exposure to sun: At first you have a beautiful, bronze tan, but after awhile that tan fades; initially, the for essay paragraphs practitioners would place more emphasis on moral issues, but, like the tan, that emphasis will fade. Another recommendation is to person, place more emphasis on my favorite person, personal professionalism. Practitioners suggested that, if employers hire honest people, it may help change the image of essay my favorite, practitioners from that of incompetent, shoddy opportunists. They also suggested practitioners need to look at their responsibilities as much more than just jobs but as a way of life, and that practitioners should be well-trained in public relations. Striving toward full professionalization could improve professional ethics (Pratt, Empirical 232). In addition, specifying exactly what constitutes public relations would clear up any misperceptions on about person, the part of practitioners.
Other ideas include rewarding and publicizing good conduct, developing a universally-honored code of ethics, and governmentally regulating the licensing of public relations practitioners. Of all the solutions suggested, from increasing household values to hiring honest people, the two proposals that have been taken the most seriously by essay my favorite person practitioners are the development of a code and the licensing of practitioners. The following reasoning has led to their earnest contemplation: How could public relations survive as a profession, if as many of its practitioners as are believed to be guilty of unethical behavior were actually guilty? Wouldnt many of the essay service college students choosing to about my favorite person, major in this field change their minds? After all, who would want to number him/herself among such cheats? It is quite possible that the essay edit service field of public relations is not as corrupt as people make it seem. The majority of essay about, ethical practitioners could be taking the bad rap for the minority of those who are unethical.
However, popular beliefs will prevail. The only edit, way for practitioners to free themselves of this stereotype is to my favorite, take action against the few that ruin it for the many. In an attempt to do that, some public relations practitioners support licensing and consider it to be the essay on prospero in the tempest only solution. Proposals to take the control of ethical decision-making out of the hands of practitioners and to put it into the hands of the essay about my favorite state had been discussed even before the PRSA was founded. Edward L. Bernays, a proponent of licensing who played an indispensable role in formulating the search masters thesis modern concept of public relations, believes that licensing would protect the profession and the public from charlatans who do not have the my favorite knowledge, talent, or ethics required (Wilcox, Ault Agee 129). The problem is stated by a PRSA task force on demonstrating professionalism: Pick up any metropolitan newspaper and scan the employment ads. Search Masters. Under the essay about my favorite public relations classification, you are likely to masters thesis, find opportunities for door-to-door salespersons, receptionists, used-car salespeople, singles bar hostesses and others of less savory reputation.
The front pages of the newspapers are full of stories about former government employees peddling influence and calling it public relations. Essay About Person. (Wilcox 129) If public relations practitioners had to obtain a license in order to practice, those who did not meet a certain set of qualifications would have to refer to for essay paragraphs, themselves as something other than public relations counselors. The qualifications could resemble those of a doctor or lawyer, such that a practitioner would have to pass a certain level of education, rigid examinations, and tests of essay about, personal integrity. Other designations adopted by linking words those who failed to meet the standards could be publicist or press agent. Several arguments have been offered, both for and against, mandatory licensing and regulation by the state. (Wilcox, Ault, Agee 129). First, proponents say that licensing would define the practice of public relations, while opponents contend that it is too difficult to define public relations rigidly enough to essay my favorite, legally regulate its practice. Second, both those for 2 and against agree that licensing would set uniform ethical standards. However, licensing does not assure high ethical behavior. The credibility and status of an occupation are not necessarily guaranteed through licensing.
Attorneys, for instance, do not particularly enjoy high public status and prestige because they are licensed. Nor do licensed practical nurses. Third, many believe licensing would protect the consumer of public relations services (clients and employers) from the impostors and the inept. Opponents point out person that civil and criminal laws already exist to deal with malpractice, or the impostors. Proponents claim that since licensing would not control anyones right to deal with the media, government, or public, or to speak out in any way, no infringement of First Amendment rights would be involved. However, opponents believe that any licensing in the communications field is an infringement on the First Amendment, as the government could actually control practitioners. Finally, those for licensing state that it would establish uniform educational curricula. Those opposed conclude that too much emphasis would then be placed on edit service, education. In addition to essay person, these contentions, opponents offer further justification for search masters their opinion. They think that voluntarily adhering to the professional organizations code would be sufficient to establish standards. The codes to which they are referring are those created by about my favorite person professional associations, such as the PRSA, the International Association of Business Communicators (IABC), and the Society of Professional Journalists (SPJ).
Members of these organizations are expected to follow these sets of standards. Next, licensing would be a states function, and public relations people often work on thesis, a national and international basis. Person. Furthermore, the machinery required for the government to for essay, license and police all public relations practitioners in this country would be elaborate and person very costly to the American taxpayer. In a final argument, proponents reason that, if medical doctors have defined themselves and have accepted a different paradigm of professionalism than have chiropractors and faith healers, then practitioners, in accordance with the state, can define and protect this definition of public relations (Kruckeberg 23). Opponents claim that legislators show little or no interest in amazon resume, licensing public relations, since the my favorite person health and welfare of the general public are not directly at stake.
In addition, this analogy of edit, comparing public relations professionals to medical doctors is inappropriate. About My Favorite. This is because of the First Amendment-type rights which prohibit the exclusion of essay about person, others to the performance of most types of public relations activities. Public relations is considered part of the mass communications field, and practitioners do not feel that anyone should be able to about, regulate what they say or do. A more befitting comparison would be between public relations counselors and Certified Public Accountants, because, like public relations, not all of the activities of accounting practitioners can be exclusionary or limited to hose in professional positions (Kruckeberg 24). In other words, it is common for ordinary people, as opposed to professionals, to utilize many of the activities involved in both public relations and accounting. In my opinion, this point wins the argument for those opposed to linking words paragraphs, licensing, and essay person leads to a more realistic solution, proposed by public relations people: the development of a universal code of ethics, self-binding to all practitioners. Ethics codes in public relations do currently exist. One such code was created by the PRSA. However, this code is neither general enough nor does it encompass enough practitioners to solve the immense ethical dilemma faced by practitioners, as will be illustrated in 2, the next section. The PRSA Code of Professional Standards. Most professional organizations and many businesses have codes of my favorite person, ethics, which are intended to my favorite, set acceptable norms of about person, behavior for working professionals and employees.
The public relations field is paragraphs no exception. Several public relations organizations have created ethical codes and hold their members responsible for upholding these standards. The Public Relations Society of America is one such organization that has a highly regarded code. Adopted in 1950, the PRSA Code of Professional Standards for the Practice of Public Relations was a fore-runner in the field and remains highly regarded due to its longevity. The society was established in person, 1948its primary mission being the unification of the public relations profession. Its first concern, according to the late Rea W. Smith, former executive vice president, was the development of an ethical code so that its members would have behavioral guidelines; management would have a clear understanding of standards; and professionals in public relations would be distinguished from shady promoters and ballyhoo advance men who, unfortunately, [had] been quick to appropriate the words public relations to for essay, describe their operations. (Wilcox, Ault Agee 117) This code consists of 17 articles dealing, for instance, with fairness toward clients, employers, and the public; with intentional communication of false or misleading information; and with engaging in practices that corrupt the channels of communication or processes of government. If a complaint is essay about person made about a member by masters thesis a peer, that person is investigated by essay about the societys Board of service, Ethical and Professional Standards. Essay About My Favorite Person. These findings are reviewed, and punitive actions can be made by the board of directors.
The PRSA may expel, suspend, censure, or reprimand a member, depending on essay, what aspect of and how seriously the code was violated. Enforcement of these standards is about effective. However, only amazon resume, about ten percent of the essay about my favorite estimated 15,700 public relations professionals in the United States are members of the PRSA. In addition to encompassing only one out of every fifteen practitioners, the society can take no legal actions against violators. Linking Words For Essay. The only thing the code jeopardizes is the practitioners membership status. No news releases are made about a terminated member, so little damage can be done to the persons career.
Therefore, this code, although good in theory, is not really that effectual. Only a universal code of ethics, encompassing all practitioners, will be able to do the my favorite job. Development of a Universal Code of Ethics as a Solution. Public relations does not have to become a legally protected profession or be governmentally licensed and regulated. Rather, a professional model similar to that of Certified Public Accountants could be used. Amazon Resume. No indomitable obstacles impede the development of person, a binding code for amazon resume the public relations professional community, although it might be a logistically difficult and sobering task.
Creating a universal ethical code is essay about my favorite person both a reasonable and an essential task, if one expects public relations practitioners to amazon resume, ever gain the respect they might actually deserve (Kruckeberg 21). Whenever someone tries to implement something new or attempts to make progress/ there are always people ready-and waiting to contradict the idea or squelch the movement. In the case of developing a universal ethics code for public relations, these people are ignorantly preventing a phenomenal plana plan which could free the term public relations ethics from being considered an essay about my favorite, oxymoron. The first argument opponents have against a universal code is that there may be considerable differences of opinion, globally, about what constitutes ethical practice by those public relations professionals practicing within different social/cultural/geopolitical systems (Kruckeberg 22). However, more similarities between cultural values exist than some realize. Search Masters. Kruckeberg (26) states that central moral aspirations in nearly all cultures include: life, social order, family protection from arbitrary rule, prohibition of inhuman and degrading treatment, the essay guarantee of a place in the life of the community, and access to an equitable share of the means of subsistence. For example, in all cultures, parents have duties toward their children, and children have duties to their parents; everywhere gratitude is regarded as good, the miser is despised, and the man of thesis in filipino 2, generous spirit is held highly. About My Favorite Person. Rather than throwing up ones hands and about my favorite person declaring that they do things differently in other countries, it would be useful to put forth a general code and let its interpretation and use suggest further refinements that will help adapt it to essay my favorite person, the nuances of the global community (Hunt Tirpok 9). A second argument is that of conflicting codes. Linking For Essay. Many public relations practitioners find themselves covered by about my favorite person more than one codea code specific to their workplace, in addition to one or more codes resulting from membership in professional associations.
However, in a study of thesis, numerous codes conducted in 1985, it was found that similar themes of accuracy, objectivity, truthfulness, and about my favorite person completeness recurred in all, indicating that ethics codes do not change substantially from on prospero in the tempest organization to organization (Hunt Tirpok 4). About. Furthermore, the purpose of creating a universal code is not to eliminate individual, existing codes. Linking Words. Rather, a universal code would serve as an essay, umbrella, broadly covering ethical points and setting standards. Practitioners could still adhere to those codes set by their employers or professional organizations. Next, some practitioners ask, Whats the use? The ten percent who are unethical will spoil it for all by their refusal to adhere to amazon resume, ethics. However, if leaders in the field have the connections and mechanism that help them to speak out and declare to about my favorite person, the public that such behaviors are not the norm and thesis in filipino are not ethical according to accepted standards, then public perception can be changed. To give up on about my favorite person, the idea of a universal code is to concede to the public their view that practitioners accept a lack of ethics as the norm for public relations (Hunt Tirpok 8). Finally, critics of the universal code argue that such a code would be meaningless due to linking, the lack of legal power to enforce ethical behavior (Kruckeberg 22). This is true, but the purpose of creating a code is not to legally regulate practitioners.
The success of about my favorite, a universal ethics code adopted by organizations would depend largely on the acceptance and compliance of members rather than enforcement. It would take a number of years to get all practitioners involved; in the long run, those who do not abide by the standards would find it impossible to about my favorite person, get a job. This point is discussed further below in the section titled The Timetable for Developing the Universal Code. Both the framework for such a code and the timetable for its implementation have been critically thought about. Hunt and Tirpok (8) suggest that the best ways to move the field toward consideration of about my favorite, a universal ethics code would be for someone to draft such a code and person present it for discussion. Such a code would need to be generic enough to cover the various activities that public relations entails, as well as globally-differing ethical standards. The draft would have to begin with an appeal to public relations practitioners to keep faith with the public (8). Also, in the preamble, the profession must be defined, and that definition should include the modern perception of public relations as a two-way symmetrical process. This means that communication is not only disseminated from public relations people to the publics, but feedback from the essay about publics to the practitioners is equally as important.
The introduction would explain that first-order concerns and linking words for essay issues, not the specifics of a particular ethical situation, would be dealt with by essay my favorite person the code. In ODwyers PR Services Report (8), public relations consultant and attorney Harold W. Suckenik recently proposed some key issues that could be dealt with simply and clearly. He argued that the need of clients, publics, journalists, and public relations firms would all be served by such straightforward statements as: I will not represent a client who is not truthful with me or the news media. On Prospero. I will not represent a client who takes a position opposed to my personal beliefs (e.g., the cigarette company example given earlier).
I will not represent a client who wants to about, conceal his or her real identity. I will not represent a client who does not allow me to disclose that I represent this client. Essay In The Tempest. I will not represent a client whose name is misleading as to the source of essay my favorite, funding or motivation of his/her group. I will not take on essay service, as a client someone who refuses to meet the media face-to-face. Neither I nor my client will obstruct or dodge those media. Most of these suggested rules seem to concern the tracing of accountability of practitioners. They are general enough that they would cover the different duties practitioners must perform and would not conflict with individual organizations codes of ethics. The Timetable for Developing the Universal Code. Once the contents of a universal code have been seriously discussed, an inevitable question must be asked: Is it possible for the concept to leave the talking stage and enter the development stage? The answer is Yes. Hunt and Tirpok (9-10) suggest a well-thought out timetable.
During phase one, which is anticipated to last one year, a group of about, interested academics seeks foundation or corporation funding for a two-day conference on drafting the universal code. Academics and representatives of public relations organizations are invited to attend the conference. About My Favorite. The first day of the conference is devoted to invited papers. The second day is a working session, with breakout groups working on different sections of the code, and a final plenary session for the purpose of assembling a draft of the code. In the second phase, a duration of my favorite person, two years, a task force is created to visit all of the concerned professional organizations to make presentations on the draft of the universal code.
They will accept suggestions for modification, implementation, and dissemination of the thesis in filipino 2 code. Phase three, lasting two years, includes the ratification and essay about implementation of the code by the participating public relations organizations. In the thesis in filipino final, one-year phase, the universal code would be published. A publicity campaign would be launched to inform target publics (such as the journalists, students, and practitioners who perceive public relations as being unethical) about the essay about person code and its importance to essay, global public relations. Assessment of the impact of and the reaction to the code will suggest the next phases of the timetable to gain acceptance for the Universal Code of Ethics. Over time, the code will become common knowledge to those seeking the services of public relations practitionersjust as those who have not adopted the code will be recognized. Eventually, those who choose not to abide by its prominent principles will no longer be able to find employment.
Public Relations is essay about my favorite a field which is viewed with much skepticism by the American public, journalists, students, and tempest even public relations practitioners. In order for public relations to survive as a profession, actions must be taken to change the unethical image these people hold of public relations. Several solutions have been offered by practitioners, including instilling moral values in the home, educating about ethical/unethical behavior, hiring more honest practitioners, rewarding and publicizing good conduct, and governmentally regulating the licensing of practitioners. All of these propositions are unfeasible, be it because the solution would be too difficult to implement, or because it is an infringement of First Amendment rights. The way to my favorite person, reverse the unethical perception of public relations is to words for essay, develop a universal code of ethics. None of the four arguments popularly cited against a universal code is problematic to such a task. A universal code, in fact, can be devised which will be satisfactory to those within different social/cultural/geopolitical systems, notwithstanding the gray areas of cultural values which may be present within such specific systems. Public relations practitioners should establish a professional model similar to that of Certified Public Accountants, recognizing that much of what they do professionally cannot be exclusionary. Globally, they can be confident that there is a plenitude of shared ethical values, and those which are within differing areas of moral taste can be discussed, universally accepted or negotiated. A universal code of professional ethics for public relations is conceivable. It should be pursued.
Hunt, Todd, and Andrew Tirpok. Universal Ethics Code: An Idea Whose Time Has Come. Public Relations Review Spring (1993): 1-10. Kruckeberg, Dean. My Favorite Person. Universal Ethics Code: Both Possible and Feasible. Public Relations Review Spring (1993): 2130. Pratt, Cornelius B. PRSA Members Perceptions of Public Relations Ethics.
Public Relations Review Summer (1991): 145-59. . Public Relations: The Empirical Research on Practitioner Ethics. In The. Journal of Business Ethics 10 (1991): 229-34. Shamir, Jacob, Barbara Straus Reed, and Steven Connell. Individual Differences in Ethical Values of Public Relations Practitioner. About My Favorite Person. Journalism Quarterly Winter (1990): 956-63. Wilcox, Dennis, Phillip Ault, and Warren Agee.
Public Relations Strategies and on prospero tempest Tactics. New York: Harper Collins Publishers Inc., 1992. Bivins, Thomas H. Public Relations, Professionalism, and the Public Interest. Journal of Business Ethics 12 (1993): 117-28. Kruckeberg, Dean. The Need for an International Code of Ethics. Public Relations Review Summer (1989): 6-18. Mencher, Melvin.
Basic Media Writing. Dubuque: Wm. C. Brown Communication, Inc., 1993.
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Favorite Person Essay Examples | Kibin
Support during the birthing process. SUPPORT DURING THE BIRTHING PROCESS HAS AN INFLUENCE UPON THE WOMAN'S PAIN EXPERIENCE. The aim of my favorite person this essay to explore the influence of support during the birthing process upon about, the woman's pain experience. Factors that influence the provision of support will also be discussed further. Support person is the woman's chosen companions, which could form of a team including the father of the essay my favorite baby, family, friends, midwife, doctor, other professional attendants who present.
The woman needs to decide who should offer her comfort and protection to feel herself uninhibited and safe (Robertson, 1997). The meaning of one-to-one continuous support during labour means not only emotional support but also has a strong positive effect on the physiology and search outcomes of birthing process. Support during birth means the need for companionship with empathy and my favorite person help (Simkin, 1992). Support during birth has been described as having four components. Firstly, emotional support, which including empowering the woman, praise reassurance, listening and continuous presence for the supporting person during the birthing process. Secondly, informational support which results of explanations and search masters thesis suggestions and also advice and information. Thirdly, physical support for instance using massage, cold face washer for cooling, offer drinks. Fourthly advocacy when the support people representing the woman's wishes to others and acting on her behalf, when requested (Hodnett, 2003). Overall, the four dimensions described have a strong effect on the woman's pain experience when the woman supported during her birthing process. Research finding show that having a support person present at about my favorite, birth have a strong positive effect of the outcome of the birth, which is associated with lower use of masters thesis pharmacological analgesia.
A trial looking the essay about my favorite person women's preferences found that having contionous support, women feel more in control of their labour and words for essay feeling better about their labour experience than expected (Hofmyer amp; Nikodem 1991). Furthermore, in a meta-analysis by Scott (1999) reviewed 11 randomized controlled trials involved 4391 women, compared continous support by female doulas during labour with no doula support. The review was classified as emotional and social what was given by essay about person midwives, student midwives and lay women with experience of birth. The outcome showed that the women presence of thesis in filipino a doula had reduction in analgesia and oxytocin augmentation compared with non doula support. However in some cases woman managing better on her own, for example the want the support person on some occasion to essay about my favorite person, leave the room. Search Thesis! On the other hand the woman should not left alone during the essay about my favorite labour because can have a powerful effect on the length of birth. A support person offers a continuous, peaceful, undisturbed presence, which is rewarding to the person who is marvelous about the way the amazon resume birth happens.
If the midwife knows the woman prior her labour and she feels that the woman would feel different about and would change her mind about the pain relief in labour after the birth, than midwife would encourage the woman to my favorite person, try to cope without analgesia. This is a good chance for student midwives to service, practice their empowerment in essay about my favorite, supporting mothers during birth as in some module of care is not possible for the mother to know her midwife. However, the student midwife has the opportunity through her follow through journey to have an 2, ongoing relationship. - support increases mothers' satisfaction with the birth experience. Midwives provide care with their practical skills to help women and their partners going through the pain of labour. Working with a woman in midwifery care includes support, advocacy, councelling, education, assistance and overall partnership with the woman during pregnancy, labour and essay person postpartum. These roles of in the midwife are embedded in a philosophical focus of midwifery care, which sees the midwife as empowering women, being women centred and giving choice to women. These factors are interconnected in midwifery practice and are important concepts of a successful support during childbirth, which are influencing the woman's pain experience. Underpinnings of pain. To explore the woman's pain experience in my favorite, labour we must consider that pain is subjective. Whilst pain relate to as an unpleasant experience, the labour pain are recognized as part of birthing process, which could encompass feelings of joy and happiness also.
The factors influencing labour pain are identified as psychological and physiological. Thesis! To be able give support to the woman during labour and influence her pain experience a midwife needs to have extensive knowledge and skills. Factors that effecting the pain. To be able to manage the woman's pain experience during her birthing process and to give support , the about person midwife needs to have knowledge about the factors effecting the pain. For other support members, husband, family and masters thesis friends can gain knowledge during the antenatal education session provided by midwifery health educators. Psychological factors associated with previous experience and usually the pain experience relate to anxiety, fear and anger. Essay My Favorite Person! The emotional events influence the painful event.
Techniques such as relaxation and hypnosis seem to be beneficial for pain management. Labour pain sometimes unacceptable by thesis the woman because they feel uncomfortable or embarrassing. These feelings should be resolved by empowering the woman. However, in some cases pharmacological analgesia as a sedative could be used to calm the labouring women. The supporting, care giving person has to ensure to provide a positive emotional environment to make the woman feel safe, confident and relaxed. Wherever the birth take place, the environment has to give privacy and peacefulness to person, the woman required (Moore, 1997). Physical pain starts with the commencement of labour when the uterus starts to contract, which regulates muscle tone and linking words increases in frequency and strength until the baby is born.
Lower abdominal is experienced as the cervix dilates. Essay Person! The stretching of the cervix distressing the soft tissues and separating the membranes. The release of prostaglandins exciting the chemical substances to linking words for essay paragraphs, release and the nerve endings stimulating the transmission of pain (Yerby, 2000). The language of birth. The supporting people using appropriate language during the about person birthing process influence the woman's pain experience positively. An important element of communication is language. According to Robertson (2000) during the essay edit service birthing process the midwife and supporting person must strive to use language that is essay about, supportive and woman-centred, steering away from medically dominated language that would serve to disempower the woman and linking words paragraphs take away from her birthing experience. From the midwife's perspective when communication and person language between midwife and mother is open, woman-centred and encouraging then the environment for the mother is one of encouragement and empowerment. The mother may than gain confidence and be more likely to amazon resume, talk to essay about person, her midwife and be more capable of taking control of her own birthing experience and essay edit service having a say in the decisions surrounding her own situation (McIntyre, 2003a).
For example talking about the baby's position not the fetus' position. Methods for pain relief during labour. It is interesting to note that using immersion in water during labour for about my favorite person pain relief was adopted by midwives, firstly in the United Kingdom . Words For Essay! However, Michael Odent was the first doctor who used immersion in water (Burnsamp; Kitzinger 2000). This is an essay person, alternative to drugs, which is becoming more popular in the today's midwifery. There has been an increased emphasis on essay empowering women and being woman centered. About Person! Using bath during labour has become a choice for women as a way of relaxing, relieving pain and enhancing the progress of essay about my favorite person labour (Odent, 1998). While immersion in water may not necessarily relieve the essay pain totally, it enables the woman to cope through her intense sensations, relax and on prospero experience more comfort.
It is evidencing the midwives willingness to use low-tech, non-medical ways to support women during birth (Robertson, 1997). Support the woman during the birthing process has an effect on essay about the woman's pain experience by massaging the woman's back which gives physical comfort. In this type of support the woman's partner can be involved also, who learned some techniques from the antenatal classes or he was practicing already during the edit service pregnancy. Various ways of massage may be used, such as deep massage of the sacral area , hand massage or foot massage. However, the support person has to be watch the woman facial expressions what is being done is helpful or not (Page, 2000).
Using analgesia for pain relief could be argued for a well supported labour. Studies show that with extra support less likely need analgesia such as epidural, which would reduce the rate of operational delivery. Midwives have to have capability to differenciate between normal and essay about person abnormal labour pain. In normal pain the women usually can cope with labour pain aided by the body's endogenous opiates, which are stimulated by essay edit service pain. We have to accept that pain during labour is part of the birthing process. To evidence that during contractions hormone release occur, which stimulates and progressing the birth. According to some studies using epidural for pain relief has a great benefit for women.
However, the disadvantage of this analgesia is there are number of adverse effects and complications associated with the technique (Page, 2000). The woman should be supported by the midwife whether she needs. Support the women by empowering. Birth support is not only about using various set of techniques. Support the about women involves empowering and encouraging women as well. Empowerment is about the support person acknowledging women as individuals, respect their feelings and choices as well as encouraging women to be responsible and take control during their labour (Too, 1996). It is empowering women by being women centred. Supporting women from the midwife's perspective, a midwife can empower the woman if she herself is empowered . Midwives have been becoming empowered since 1985 when their education became less controlled by obstetricians. For midwives to linking paragraphs, feel empowered in their professional roles, midwives need to essay about, continuously develop their knowledge and about my favorite skills by attending education programs to be up to date.
To enhance their professional role and confidence, midwives need to support each other (Code of Ethics, 2001:IV). As Leap (1994) writes education can empower midwives to challenge traditional views. Overall, an essay, empowered midwife is capable to support the woman to linking for essay paragraphs, experience her birthing in a positive view, which consequently empowers the woman (Perez, 2002). There are various ways the midwives can empower women which are foundations of the ACMI Competency Standards for Women (2002:9amp;13). Essay! Midwives empower women by being the woman's advocate. To support the woman, a midwife needs to establish a positive atmosphere for the woman to tempest, assist communication, which in turn enables the woman to essay about my favorite person, express her needs, thoughts and feelings. Essay In The! A midwife's support should encourage the person woman to feel in essay edit service, control and independent rather than being told what to do. This sense of control should not only arise from support, but accurate and unbiased information and prenatal education and conselling. Essay! It is the midwive's responsibility to recognize the mother's strengths and weaknesses. The midewife needs to understang the woman's needs and has to encourage her to trust herself. The midwife needs to be able to guide the mother and develop her ability and develop a positive attitude.
The midwife's influence can result in a joyful, less pain experience for women with their labour. Furthermore, as Hall (1994) writes, a midwife can support the woman with her emotional, spiritual and in filipino 2 physical presence. I believe that women need to feel that the midwife with her support has the ability to help and provide for them a high quality of maternity services. According to Too (1996) this requires an open communication and caring athmosphere, moreover management and staff support. As a result of Callister's qualitative study (1993), labouring women described the importance of midwives providing support as reassurance and encouragement and their comforting presence. Also found important of midwives internventions that the mother feel cared as an individual, treating with respect, being present and providing physical support like massage. There is not much talk about but there is a big impact on the mother's and her partner's relationship with the first child arrival. There is a new beginning after childbirth, which means the father committed himself to learn how to change in this new creature in his life.
Support during birth by the partner some on essay my favorite person them feel worried because they don't know what's going on. It is import for the parents to about person, discuss before the birth what are their individual needs during the labour and make plans to bring the my favorite person right decision of the event. The supportive partner needs to give physical and emotional support for example by holding the mother's hand, listening to the woman, able to talk to the midwife and doctor on behalf the mother and encourage his partner. Overall, the supporting partner can help to the woman to service, make her feel more relaxed, safe which is a result for a more positive birthing experience. In this harmonious supporting relationship during birth less likely need the mother analgesia the parents can celebrate the pain as a result of a joyfull birth experience. (MIDIRS, 2003)
Factors influencing the provision of support provided by midwives. According to about my favorite person, Gale (2001), barriers to providing support identified by midwives were lack of time and insufficient staff. Thesis! Also the result of new technologies used such as electronic fetal monitoring, receiving infusions for induce labour and for pain relief also palying role of the effectiveness of supporting in labour. In consequence the about my favorite person woman has limited ability to move around such as ambulating in an effort to reduce pain. Furthermore, some healthcare providers have control over labouring women and their partners such as hospital policies not permitted at some sites to have additional support like partner, family member. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Coursework essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on essay in the tempest hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to essay person, a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Coursework work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This coursework was submitted to thesis, us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.
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