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Analogy essay outline

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book editor resume Crafting Your Work. Essay? The Writing Business. The Writing Life. The Writing Life. Fiction Writing - General. Thesis In Filipino? Fiction Writing - Genres. POD Subsidy Publishing. Analogy Outline? General Promotion Tips. This free script provided by.

Do you know what a writer's resume looks like? I have a regular full-time job but also work as a freelance writer from home. Essay Edit? Recently I saw two ads for writing jobs, requiring a resume along with clips and essay, a query leter. Should I include only masters, my writing credits and education? Or should I include my whole employment history even though many of analogy outline those jobs had nothing to do with writing? Here's a dilemma freelance writers often face: How do you go about getting a day job in thesis, the writing or publishing business?

If you're a freelancer, chances are that (a) you work from outline, home, and (b) your job history (current or former) may have little relationship to your writing skills. You know that you have the my favorite person, skills to handle a regular writing or editorial position, but how do you convince an employer? Don't despair: There is an alternative. Instead of using a traditional work history resume, consider developing a skills resume instead. This type of resume is outline, a perfectly acceptable alternative to essay person, the chronological resume, and enables you to focus on outline the skills and thesis, experience that are directly relevant to the job for which you're applying. A skills resume differs from a job-history resume in that it lists your skills and qualifications in a separate section, rather than as a subset of your work history. The basic framework for such a resume might look something like this: Section 1: Name, address, telephone, fax, e-mail, URL. If you're using a print resume, center these in essay outline, a larger, attractive (but not too fancy) font, as follows: Ima Great Writer.

123 Quill Pen Rd. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail. Great Writings Page #183 http://www.greatwritings.com. Optional. If you choose to list your objectives, use no more than two lines here. Section 3: Qualifications. This is the critical part of your resume. You may want to give this section a more definitive title, such as Writing and homework doing, Editing Experience . Here, you'll want to essay, list each type of essay edit skill that is relevant to the job you're applying for. For example, if the job listing asks for demonstrated writing and editing skills, plus familiarity with Internet publishing and HTML, your qualifications section might look something like this: Writing: Professional writer for XX years, with experience in magazine, newspaper, and business writing. Outline? Author of XXX articles in in the, XX national publications; co-author of two books; author of three book chapters. Winner of the 1998 best article award from the Good Authors' Association. (See attached publications list for details.) Even if your work history has nothing to do with your writing skills, you should include it. A history of employment indicates to analogy, a potential employer that you are, in fact, employable.

If your history indicates several periods of steady employment with a single company, this indicates that you are considered a reliable worker (i.e., one who was retained) rather than someone who either flits from job to essay, job or gets fired frequently. Outline? If you've been promoted within your company (past or present), list this as well, as this is another good indication of your ability to function well as an employee. Unlike the job-history listings in a regular chronological resume, however, you'll want to my favorite, keep these sections short. Essay Outline? List your job title, dates, the name of the company and its location, and a contact name and number if you wish. Use no more than two or three lines to summarize your duties and thesis, major achievements.

Be selective: List promotions, and highlights such as number of people supervised, whether you were responsible for analogy, a budget, whether you handled major projects, etc. If you have been self-employed as a freelance writer for search, a period of time, list this as your most recent job. This will help explain any otherwise awkward gaps in your employment history. For example: Freelance Writer - June 1997 to present City, state Brief description of your primary writing activities, including the analogy essay, names of any major clients or publications for which you have provided material or services. Don't bother to recap the skills you've already listed above. On Prospero? Needless to say, if you can find any duties in your work history that relate to writing or the job you're trying to obtain, list them -- even if it's something as obscure as contributed to the company newsletter. Do not, however, list your reasons for leaving previous jobs (whether voluntary or otherwise), and analogy, never include negative information about your previous employers. Every resume should include your educational history, starting with the most recent degrees and my favorite person, working backwards. If you have a college education, omit information about high school. This section should also include any other relevant education you may have, such as vocational training, on-the-job training, or even online courses that are relevant to the job you're seeking. (Keep in mind, however, that adult education courses, which generally don't involve grades or certification, generally won't impress an employer.) Many writing and editorial jobs ask for a degree in writing (e.g., journalism, English, etc.).

Don't panic if you have no such degree; most companies are more than happy to accept experience in lieu of formal education. Section 6: Awards and Memberships. Analogy Essay? This is the section to list any awards you've received, especially relating to writing and editing. (Don't include awards your website has received, unless they are truly meaningful.) If you are a member of homework doing any writing or editorial societies or organizations, list those as well (if you have room). Section 7: Personal Information. It was once fashionable to list personal interests and hobbies on a resume. Now, however, that is considered inappropriate. If you have specific hobby skills that somehow relate to outline, the job in question, try to find a way to homework doing, list those under skills instead. (For example, if you're applying for a job at an archaeology magazine and you've participated in several digs during your summer vacations, list those under skills and experience.). Here's what your resume might look like when you're finished: 123 Quill Pen Rd. #183 Hometown, CA 94000. (555) 123-4567 #183 (555) 123-4568 (fax) #183 e-mail. Great Writings Page #183 http://www.greatwritings.com. Objectives: An editorial position that will enable me to analogy, contribute to thesis in filipino, the creative development of a publication and outline, expansion of its circulation.

Writing and homework doing, Editorial Background. Writing: Professional writer for analogy essay, XX years, with experience in magazine, newspaper, and business writing. Essay My Favorite? Author of XXX articles in essay, XX national publications; co-author of two books; author of three book chapters. Winner of the 1998 best article award from the Good Authors' Association. Essay Person? (See attached publications list for details.) Freelance Writer - June 1997 to essay outline, present. City, state Brief description of your primary writing activities, including the essay edit, names of any major clients or publications for which you have provided material or services. Don't bother to recap the analogy essay, skills you've already listed above. City, state; contact name and phone number if desired. Essay In The Tempest? Brief summary of essay outline your duties and responsibilities; list major achievements and essay service, promotions. Company Name Brief summary of your duties and essay, responsibilities; list major achievements and promotions. M.A., University of Somewhere, 1989 - Journalism.

B.A., University of Somewhere Else, 1985 - English. Certification in masters thesis, Editorial Excellence, 1992; Certification in HTML, Online School of HTML, 1997. Awards and Memberships. Cat Writers' Association, Best Article, 1998. Speakers' Bureau Certificate of Excellence, 1997. Member, Authors' Guild. Member, Mystery Writers' Association of America. Member, Mytown Writers' Consortium; Vice-President 1997-1998. In addition to your resume (which you should try to keep to one page, unless you've had truly extensive relevant experience), you'll also want to provide a publications list.

This should also be kept to a single page. Essay? Give it the service, same header (name, address, etc) as your resume, and use it to list your most significant publications or those that are most relevant to the position. Double-space the list, which should include the essay, title of search masters each article or story, the publication in which it appeared, and the date of publication. If it appeared online (and is still available), you may wish to include the URL as well. You may also be asked for clips. Choose your best; if your publications include quality photos, consider springing for analogy essay outline, color copies. It should go without saying that these should be published clips -- but I have been amazed at about the range of samples offered by job applicants. One individual who was applying to a job I was about to analogy outline, vacate offered the first three pages of two unfinished short stories as samples of her writing ability (need I say that she wasn't hired?).

If you haven't assembled a portfolio of homework doing your best work, this is a good time to do so. Find a nice leather binder at an office supply store, and insert your best clips into plastic sheet-protectors (the kind that are large enough to hold an 8.5x11 page without the need to actually hole-punch your clips themselves). Don't use those ancient, awful plastic protectors with the black paper insert; besides being as obsolete as dinosaurs, those can actually damage your clips. If you write in several different fields, consider dividing your portfolio into analogy outline, sections. Include color copies of any awards you've received, along with a copy of your publications list.

This resume advice may seem all very well if you actually have something to put in your skills and experience section -- but what if you don't? The short answer is that you're not likely to get the masters thesis, job of your dreams. The long answer is: If you know you'd like to be able to apply for a job in the writing, editing, or publishing business in the future, start preparing now . Analogy Essay? If you have dreams of becoming an editor, and you're now a freelance writer, look around for editing possibilities. Today, you can find a host of part-time, telecommuting editorial jobs online; check our Jobs for thesis, Writers section for a list of links to analogy, job boards. For many of these jobs, all you need is essay on prospero in the, skill and a modem. Build a relationship with a company that can give you a good recommendation. While it's often easy to find volunteer jobs, be aware that a magazine publisher may not be impressed by the fact that you edited your church newsletter or Neighborhood Watch bulletin.

A history of paid positions, even part-time contract jobs, will serve far better (and put food on your table at the same time). Such jobs can also bring you a regular paycheck during those gaps when freelancing checks are slow to arrive. A good skills resume may be all you need to analogy essay outline, get your foot in the door. After that, it's up to thesis, you. If that sounds intimidating, why not think of outline yourself in search, the same terms as one of your queries or manuscripts? With the proper presentation -- the right envelope, a professional approach, and appropriate credentials -- you'll be well on your way to the job of your dreams.

Copyright 2001 Moira Allen. Essay? Moira Allen is the editor of thesis in filipino Writing-World.com, and outline, has written nearly 400 articles, serving as a columnist and regular contributor for such publications as The Writer, Entrepreneur, Writer's Digest , and Byline . Essay Edit Service? An award-winning writer, Allen is the author of eight books, including Starting Your Career as a Freelance Writer, The Writer's Guide to Queries, Pitches and Proposals, and Writing to Win: The Colossal Guide to analogy essay outline, Writing Contests. Essay About Person? In addition to Writing-World.com, Allen hosts VictorianVoices.net, a growing archive of articles from Victorian periodicals, and The Pet Loss Support Page, a resource for grieving pet owners. She lives in Maryland with her husband and the obligatory writer's cat. Analogy Essay Outline? She can be contacted at editors at writing-world.com.

Copyright 2017 by greek Moira Allen. All rights reserved. Analogy? All materials on this site are the property of homework doing their authors and may not be reprinted. without the author's written permission, unless otherwise indicated.

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Les commandes fondamentales de Linux. Nat Makarevitch pour ses nombreuses critiques et corrections, Thomas Ortega pour ses bienveillantes remarques et la remise en forme HTML du document, Kim Ashue pour sa relecture, Philibert de Mercey pour son aide a la mise en page, Fanthomas pour sa relecture. L'objectif de ce document est d'enseigner les commandes fondamentales de Linux (et donc d'Unix). Nous explorerons ce qu'offre le shell le plus utilise sous Linux, donc une partie de ce que peut faire un utilisateur capable de diriger la machine en creant des lignes de commandes plutot qu'en se contentant d'un cliquodrome. Pour apprendre il faut pratiquer, donc disposer d'une machine fonctionnant sous Linux qui n'est pas serieusement exploitee. Essay Outline. Son arret ou sa modification ne doit rien menacer.

Si vous en avez deja une negligez la presente section (passez a la suivante). Chacune des sous-sections suivantes (Emulateur, Services Linux de Windows 10. Masters Thesis. ) presente un moyen de disposer d'une machine sous Linux. Un emulateur animant Linux sous votre navigateur web est le moyen le plus simple de commencer. Analogy Essay. Votre navigateur simulera une machine qui executera Linux. Homework Doing. Pour cela cliquer ici, ce qui doit ouvrir un nouvel onglet ou vous trouverez une machine virtuelle fonctionnant sous Linux, immediatement utilisable. Essay. Elle fonctionne dans votre navigateur et ne peut rien casser. Thesis Goddess. N'hesitez pas a explorer et a experimenter car il n'y a aucun risque d'endommager quoi que ce soit. Certaines commandes n'y sont pas installees mais c'est le moyen le plus facile, immediat et sans danger d'aborder le sujet. Il faut toutefois employer un navigateur recent et un ordinateur au processeur puissant. Si vous disposez d'une machine il n'est pas necessaire d'y installer d'emblee Linux, il suffit dans un premier temps de l'amorcer de facon «live».

Vous devrez graver un CD ou un DVD. Nous recommandons une version de Linux («distribution») appelee Knoppix. Telecharger tout d'abord l'image de CD ou de DVD, par exemple (en France Metropolitaine) de Free.fr ou (en anglais) via le document officiel. Essay Outline. Il est recommande de verifier a tout le moins son empreinte SHA et, au mieux, GPG, toutefois cela depasse le cadre du present document. Graver le disque correspondant. Amorcer la machine grace a ce disque. In Filipino 2. Une invite libellee «boot:» apparaitra (en bas). Analogy Outline. Saisir «knoppix lang=fr». Tempest. Si vous n'y parvenez pas attendre demarrage complet puis, ouvrir un «terminal» et saisir «setxkbmap 'fr(multi)'» (la documentation officielle n'existe qu'en anglais). Linux fonctionne alors sans etre installe, toutefois il est possible de modifier le contenu des disques de la machine donc ne pas faire n'importe quoi.

Si vous le pouvez, installez Linux sur une machine, de preference virtuelle (VirtualBox, VMware, Microsoft Virtual PC. Essay. ). Nous recommandons la distribution utilisee par ceux qui vous aideront, ou a defaut Ubuntu ou Debian. «Linux» est le nom du seul noyau, le c?ur du systeme d'exploitation qui est lui-meme un ensemble de logiciels grace auxquels la machine est rendue plus facilement utilisable par l'humain comme par une application. Une famille de logiciels appeles shells fournit un moyen de diriger ce dernier en lui communiquant des commandes. Search Thesis. Nous exposerons ici la facon d'employer le shell le plus repandu sous Linux, nomme «Bash», ainsi que certains utilitaires. La plupart des distributions Linux demarrent d'emblee, sitot le systeme amorce, une interface graphique fournie par un ensemble logiciel appele X Window et donnant a l'ecran d'accueil une apparence agreable dont voici un exemple (cliquer sur l'image pour zoomer):

Si X Window n'est pas demarre, vous ne verrez aucune fenetre et pas de graphisme sauf peut-etre un Tux en haut a gauche, mais des caracteres sous forme de charabia termine par la mention «login:» suivie d'un curseur clignotant: (Cette etape n'est pas necessaire si vous employez l'emulateur preconise) Connectez-vous au systeme en tant qu'utilisateur root, donc saisir root en guise de «login» (et soumettre grace a la touche «Entree», evidemment!), puis le mot de passe («password») adequat (qui a ete defini lors de l'installation ou est fourni par la documentation). Si la machine emploie X Window, explorez les menus afin de demarrer un «terminal» (il peut etre appele «Terminal», «Konsole», «KTerm», «Gnome terminal», «xterm», «rxvt». Analogy. ), par exemple via le menu «Applications», «Accessoires» ou «Systeme». Vous vous trouvez alors devant le shell, qui est un logiciel grace auquel vous pourrez passer des commandes, afin de demarrer d'autres programmes par exemple. Essay Edit Service. Plusieurs shells existent, le plus repandu est nomme bash (csh et zsh en sont d'autres).

Le shell affiche, en debut de ligne, quelques caracteres fournissant diverses informations et invitant a lui communiquer une commande. C'est ce que l'on appelle son invite (synonyme: prompt). (Ceci ne vaut pas sous l'emulateur preconise, toutefois c'est une necessaire habitude a contracter) Ne jamais eteindre brutalement la machine, il FAUT INFORMER Linux de votre souhait de l'arreter afin qu'il prenne les dispositions necessaires (en particulier ecrire sur toute memoire de masse tout ce qui doit l'etre). shutdown -r now reamorce immediatement l'ordinateur. Analogy Essay. shutdown -h now arrete completement le systeme. Greek. Vous pouvez eteindre l'ordinateur lorsque sera affiche: Nous traiterons du shell nomme bash, le pus employe sous Linux. Commencons par nous assurer que c'est bien le shell employe.

Saisir echo $SHELL . Soumettez cette commande au systeme grace a la touche «Entree», evidemment! Le systeme retourne le nom du fichier executable fournissant le shell courant. Analogy Essay Outline. S'il ne s'agit pas de «/bin/bash» certains des elements ci-apres exposes ne seront pas corrects. (Sous l'emulateur preconise aucun nom ne sera retourne. Essay Tempest. Il fournit en fait d'«ash», assez compatible et complet pour que le plus gros de ce qui suit soit utilisable) En realite echo est la commande proprement dite, qui fait office de verbe d'action, et $SHELL l'argument que nous lui fournissons, qui precise sur quoi elle doit travailler. Les arguments qui suivent le nom d'une commande lui indiquent ce qu'elle doit faire, sur quoi, comment. La commande echo se contente de repeter les arguments qui lui sont fournis, de sorte que echo toto affiche toto et echo titi tutu affiche titi tutu.

«$SHELL» designe le contenu d'une variable d'environnement (c'est ce que le signe dollar place en prefixe revele) nommee «SHELL». Essay Outline. Lorsqu'il lit un caractere '$' suivi d'un groupe de caracteres le shell remplace l'ensemble par le contenu de la variable d'environnement ainsi nommee. Pour examiner le contenu d'une variable, saisir echo $ nom_de_la_variable . echo $SHELL affiche le contenu d'une variable d'environnement nommee «SHELL», qui par convention recele le nom du shell actif. La variable PATH contient la liste des chemins ou sont cherches les fichiers executables invoques. Search Masters Thesis. Pour examiner son contenu: echo $PATH . Essay Outline. Le separateur est le caractere ':'. Edit Service. Si le PATH contient /usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin, alors a chaque fois que le systeme tentera, sous votre compte, de lancer un executable, il cherchera le fichier l'abritant tout d'abord dans le repertoire nomme /usr/local/bin puis, s'il ne l'y trouve pas, dans /usr/bin, puis dans /bin. Si vous souhaitez ajouter au PATH un repertoire /home/delcros/bin qui contient vos programmes personnels, il vous faudra editant le fichier /.bash_profile de sorte qu'il contienne: PATH=$PATH:/bin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/home/delcros/bin. Outline. Pour que son contenu soit pris en compte apres une modification, vous devez vous reloguer (ou utiliser la commande «source», non exposee ici).

La variable PS1 contient la definition du prompt: PS1=[u@h w $] affichera votre nom d'utilisateur (u), puis le caractere @, puis le nom de la machine (h, pour h ost), puis une espace, puis le repertoire de travail courant (w, pour w orking directory), puis un caractere '#' si vous etes root et '$' sinon. Voici un autre parametrage de prompt: PS1=[t d u@h w $] Se deplacer dans l'arborescence de repertoires ( cd ) L'invite est parametrable et ressemble souvent a ceci: [root@mistra /root]$ ( mistra est le nom de ma machine). Le premier root signifie que vous vous etes actif sous le compte utilisateur de l'administrateur systeme. Greek Goddess. Vous etes donc en pleine possession de la machine, vous pouvez faire absolument n'importe quoi, jusqu'a supprimer des fichiers necessaires a son fonctionnement. Analogy Outline. faites donc tres attention. Thesis 2. En theorie il ne faut utiliser la machine sous ce compte que pour l'administrer. Analogy. Des comptes dits «d'utilisateurs» permettent de travailler en temps normal sans risquer de mettre le systeme en panne en cas d'action inconsideree ou de «mauvaise manipulation». Edit Service. Nous exposerons ci-apres comment creer un compte utilisateur.

Dans le prompt [root@mistra /root]$ la mention /root exprime que vous vous trouvez dans un repertoire nomme «/root». Essay Outline. Sous Unix un repertoire n'est pas essentiellement different d'un fichier, vous lirez ou entendrez donc souvent le mot «fichier» utilise pour designer un objet a la nature non determinee qui peut etre un fichier ou un repertoire. Tout fichier (ou repertoire. In Filipino. ) se trouve a un endroit precis, appele son chemin d'acces, constitue: du nom du repertoire racine qui est present sur tous les systemes, donc commun a tous les chemins et par convention appele «/» («barre oblique», plus communement appele slash ) ou Le tout premier repertoire, , est appele «/». Analogy Outline. Tous les autres repertoires y prennent plus ou moins directement racine) suivi de la serie des noms des repertoires qui y menent, deux noms consecutifs etant separes au moyen de la barre oblique suivie de son nom. Si un repertoire nomme «repertoire1» contient un repertoire appele «repertoire2» recelant lui-meme un fichier «monfichier» le chemin complet de ce dernier est «/repertoire1/repertoire2/monfichier». Actuellement, donc, vous vous trouvez connecte sous le compte de l'administrateur systeme et dans le repertoire appele «/root», ou peut-etre «/var/root».

Deplacons-nous dans la racine du systeme en saisissant cd / . Separez bien cd et / par un caractere espace car Unix exige une grande precision. En pratique cd est la commande et / l'argument que nous lui fournissons. Essay On Prospero In The. Les arguments suivent la commande et sont parfois precedes d'un tiret. Vous etes maintenant dans le repertoire racine et le prompt devient [root@ nom_de_votre_machine /]# . Tapez la commande ls ( l i s t) afin d'obtenir la liste de son contenu, vous devez obtenir quelque chose comme: Si certains fichiers ou repertoires manquent sur votre machine, ce n'est pas important. Deplacons-nous dans le repertoire qui contient une grande partie des programmes (souvent simplement appeles «binaires») nomme /usr/bin en saississant cd /usr/bin . Analogy Essay. La commande reste cd mais cette fois l'argument est /usr/bin. On Prospero In The. Vous pouvez la aussi obtenir le contenu du repertoire en utilisant la commande ls . Maintenant allons voir ce que contient le repertoire /etc (apercu lorsque nous avons liste le contenu du repertoire racine / ). Essay Outline. Nous avons deux possibilites pour nous y rendre: soit nous revenons dans le repertoire racine et nous nous rendons ensuite dans le repertoire etc ; soit nous nous rendons immediatement dans le repertoire /etc . Methode n°1: cd / (pour se rendre a la racine) puis cd etc.

Cette methode est fastidieuse car elle necessite de taper deux commandes successives. Greek. Nous pouvons utiliser la deuxieme methode pour nous rendre directement dans le repertoire «/etc» en ecrivant le chemin complet: . Analogy. et nous voici directement places dans le repertoire «/etc». Greek Goddess. Nous avons indique que pour se rendre dans le repertoire «etc», il fallait d'abord se rendre dans le repertoire racine. Essay Outline. Pour ce faire, nous avons place un «/» devant «etc». Lorsque l'on fournit a la commande cd un « » au lieu d'un chemin, elle nous deplace automatiquement dans notre repertoire personnel, egalement appele «repertoire utilisateur» ou «home, celui ou nous pouvons stocker nos travaux. Essay On Prospero In The. Si vous etes l'administrateur systeme la commande cd. Pour revenir dans votre repertoire personnel cd. A quel programme correspond une commande? (type) Certaines commandes sont dites «internes» car le shell contient le programme correspondant (reagissant a la commande, par exemple «cd»). La plupart des commandes se trouvent dans les repertoires nommes «/bin», «/usr/bin». Analogy Essay Outline. Les repertoires «/sbin» et «/usr/sbin» recelent des commandes utiles a l'administrateur, et «/usr/local/bin» abrite des commandes mises au point qui ne furent pas fournies par la distribution, donc par exemple des realisations de l'administrateur.

Lorsqu'on soumet a un shell une commande qu'il ne connait pas il determine s'il s'agit du nom d'un programme executable, et si c'est le cas le demarre. Pour diverses raisons certaines commandes existent a la fois sous forme interne et externe. Essay My Favorite Person. En ce cas la version interne est par defaut executee, sauf si l'on fournit le chemin d'acces de la version externe. Analogy Essay Outline. La commande «ls, par exemple, se trouve sur la plupart des machines sous les deux formes. Essay Edit Service. Invoquer «ls» demarre la version du shell, pour lancer la commande externe il faut par exemple invoquer «/bin/ls».

Pour determiner si une commande est interne ou externe, fournir son nom a la commande «type». Analogy Essay. Exemple: D'autres, par exemple «time», sont des mot-cles plutot que des commandes car ils ne sont pas autonomes (ils doivent porter sur une commande). Pour determiner ou se trouve, parmi les repertoires du PATH, le fichier executable d'un programme, par exemple d'une commande externe, employer la commande «which» (qui signifie «lequel») suivie de son nom, par exemple «which ls». On Prospero In The Tempest. Si aucune reponse n'apparait, le programme n'existe pas ou est une commande interne.

Pour obtenir une liste complete utiliser l'option «-a»: Pour chercher un fichier independamment du contenu du PATH on outline peut employer «find» ou (s'il est installe) «locate» qui repose sur une sorte de base de donnees des noms de fichiers periodiquement rafraichie (donc peut fournir un resultat obsolete). Dans quel repertoire suis-je actuellement? ( pwd ) Lorsque l'on se deplace dans les repertoires, par defaut le prompt bash n'affiche que le «nom court» de celui ou l'on se trouve. Homework Doing. Le nom court ne comprend pas le chemin complet. Essay. Or il se peut qu'un meme nom court corresponde a plusieurs repertoires bien distincts, donc que seuls les chemins qui y menent permettent de les distinguer. Essay On Prospero Tempest. C'est par exemple le cas du nom court bin , que l'on trouve par exemple en «/bin» et en «/usr/local/bin». Essay. Il existe beaucoup d'autres exemples. Pour connaitre le chemin du repertoire ou l'on se trouve, on about my favorite utilise la commande pwd ( p ath of analogy essay outline current w orking d irectory). Lister le contenu d'un repertoire ( ls ) La commande ls permet d'obtenir beaucoup d'informations sur les fichiers et repertoires.

Deplacons-nous par exemple dans le repertoire «/bin»: cd /bin. Puis demandons liste de son contenu: ls. Nous pouvons demander a ls de lister uniquement les fichiers dont les noms contiennent des caracteres donnes. Essay About My Favorite Person. Gagnons le repertoire /bin: cd /bin puis demandons par exemple la liste des seuls noms de fichiers dont les noms commencent par la lettre g: ls g* L'argument g* que nous venons de fournir est un motif, auquel on analogy peut penser comme a une sorte de filet dont les mailles sont definies par nous (utilisateur), en respectant un certain nombre de conventions, et qui est ensuite applique ( jete ) par le shell afin de selectionner des noms de fichiers qui y correspondent. Les principales conventions valides dans ce contexte, donc lorsque l'on definit un motif de selection de noms de fichiers destine au shell, sont: l'etoile (ou plutot l'asterisque) est un caractere generique selectionnant n'importe quel ensemble de caracteres le point d'interrogation selectionnant n'importe quel caractere. Lorsque nous invoquons ls g* : dans un premier temps le shell applique le motif (jette le filet) et selectionne les noms de fichiers du repertoire courant qui correspondent au motif dans un deuxieme temps le shell lance ls en lui communiquant ce qu'il a selectionne, donc par exemple (si les seuls fichiers du repertoire courant dont le nom commence par g sont «grep», «gunzip», «gzexe» et «gzip»): ls grep gunzip gzexe gzip. Cette interpretation de motif puis selection des noms de fichiers y correspondant est en anglais appelee glob. 2. Elle fonctionne pour toutes les commandes, on outline peut donc saisir echo g* . Thesis In Filipino. et obtenir le meme resultat qu'avec ls g* . On peut egalement interdire au shell d'effectuer ce «glob» en placant l'argument entre apostrophes. Analogy. Exemple: ls 'g*' , qui produit ici «ls: ne peut acceder g*: Aucun fichier ou repertoire de ce type», car ls cherche bien entendu alors un fichier nomme g* (g suivi d'un asterisque), qui n'existe pas. echo 'g*' , en revanche, fonctionne parfaitement puisque 'g*' devient alors un litteral qui sera traite par echo comme n'importe quelle autre chaine. Thesis In Filipino. qu'il se contente donc d'afficher, independamment de ce que contient le repertoire courant.

Voici quelques options interessantes de la commande ls : ls -l liste les attributs de fichiers (les droits de lecture, d'ecriture et d'execution, le proprietaire, le groupe, la taille en octets, sa date de creation ou de modification). (Note: la mention «total 3615» exprime la taille cumulee des fichiers, exprimee en blocs de 512 octets.) Ici, tous les fichiers appartiennent a l'administrateur systeme (root) et a son groupe (root). Essay Outline. Nous traiterons du sens de la fin de chaque ligne, qui contient parfois une fleche visible ici sur la ligne awk - gawk , dans la section consacree aux liens ln. -a liste tous (penser au mot a ll) les fichiers du repertoire, y compris les fichiers caches. In Filipino. Cette option est tres utile lorsque l'on se trouve dans son repertoire personnel car il contient les fichiers de configuration de l'utilisateur dont les noms commencent generalement par un point et seule l'option -a permet de detecter leur existence. D'autres options de ls sont utiles: -m affiche en separant par une virgule au lieu de les presenter en colonnes. Essay. -t trie par date, c'est-a-dire en les classant du recent au plus ancien (penser a t ime). Thesis Greek Goddess. -F trie par type.

Ainsi un fichier suivi d'un slash (/) est un repertoire, un fichier suivi d'une etoile est un fichier executable et un fichier suivi d'un @ est un lien (nous reviendrons sur les liens dans la section consacree a ln ). Analogy Outline. -S trie par ordre de taille decroissante (penser a s ize). Masters Thesis. -X trie par extension. Essay Outline. -r trie par ordre alphabetique inverse (penser a r everse). 2. Cette option a la particularite d'inverser l'effet de toutes les autres options de tris requises. Analogy Essay Outline. ls -tr affichera ainsi les fichiers par date (-t) en commencant par les plus anciens pour finir par les plus recents. La commande less permet de lire le contenu d'un fichier texte. Essay My Favorite. Nous avons vu que le repertoire /root contenait des fichiers de configuration. Analogy Essay. Ces fichiers sont simplement des fichiers textes avec un agencement et une syntaxe particuliere.

Regardons le contenu du fichier .bashrc qui permet de configurer a souhait son shell: less .bashrc . Pour passer d'une page a l'autre, tapez sur la touche espace. Essay. Pour revenir sur la page precedente tapez sur «b» ( b ack). Analogy. Pour quitter tapez «q». Une option utile de less est -N qui numerote les lignes (la numerotation de ligne apparait a l'ecran mais le fichier n'en est pas pour autant modifie). Si vous souhaitez connaitre les autres options de less , invoquez less --help . Modifier le contenu d'un fichier (l'editer) ( emacs , joe ) joe est simple et leger. Service. C'est l'editeur que j'utilise pour faire une petite modification dans un fichier de configuration. La touche Ctrl (Control) permet de le commander. Ctrl-k h afficher le panneau d'aide en ligne (un nouveau Ctrl-k h l'effacera). Analogy. Note: dans les textes d'aide de joe le caractere ^ (circonflexe) represente par convention la touche Control, donc ce que nous presentons ici par Ctrl-k h y est note ^KH Ctrl-k e ouvrir un fichier Ctrl-k d sauvegarder Ctrl-k x sauvegarder et quitter Ctrl-c quitter sans sauvegarder.

GNU nano est lui aussi populaire et repandu. En tant qu'utilisateur root editer, dans le repertoire «/etc/joe/», les fichiers nommes «joerc» et «jmacsrc» de sorte que. «-asis» se trouve en debut de ligne (pas d'espace avant le tiret), afin de pouvoir editer des caracteres accentues «-backpath path» se trouve en debut de ligne et soit suivi de «/tmp», la ligne devenant donc «-backpath /tmp», afin que les fichiers de sauvegarde de la precedente version d'un fichier edite se trouvent dans «/tmp» plutot que dans le repertoire courant. Emacs date de la fin des annees 70 et ne cesse d'evoluer depuis. Essay On Prospero In The Tempest. Ce qui fait de lui, sans aucun doute possible, l'editeur le plus puissant.

Bien plus qu'un editeur, il est un environnement de travail: edition, programmation, mail, news, shell . Analogy Outline. bref on greek peut rester sous Emacs sans avoir besoin de quoi que ce soit d'autre. Ses adeptes sont tres nombreux, et ne leur dites pas qu'il est lourd . Essay. vous vous tromperiez lourdement (je sais de quoi je parle . Homework Doing. j'ai fait l'erreur et en ce moment je suis sous Emacs. Essay. ;-)) Lancons Emacs: emacs. Ses combinaisons reposent sur les touches Ctrl (Control) et Meta (qui correspond souvent a Alt ). Ouvrons un fichier nomme «linux-test» grace a la combinaison de touches suivante: Ctrl-x Ctrl-f , donc enfoncer la touche Control et la maintenir en position basse, taper «x» puis «f», et relacher «Control». Masters. La mention Find File: / apparait (en bas, derniere ligne, dans le «minibuffer»). Analogy Essay. Saisir le nom du fichier et valider grace a la touche Entree. Homework Doing. Son contenu apparait et vous pouvez le modifier. Analogy Essay Outline. Les touches Backspace et Suppr fonctionnent comme sous n'importe quel editeur. Homework Doing. Pour sauver tapez la combinaison de touches: Ctrl-x Ctrl-s . Si vous etes bloque apres avoir effectue de mauvaises manipulations, tapez Ctrl-g , si necessaire plusieurs fois. Si vous avez fait des erreurs, Ctrl-x u supprime les dernieres modifications.

Si vos touches de deplacement du curseur ne fonctionnent pas: Ctrl-p : monter d'une ligne. Analogy. Ctrl-n : descendre d'une ligne. Thesis Greek Goddess. Ctrl-f : avancer d'un caractere. Outline. Ctrl-b : reculer d'un caractere. In Filipino 2. Ctrl-v : avancer d'une page. Essay. Alt-v : reculer d'un ecran. Thesis Greek Goddess. Ctrl-d : supprimer le caractere sur lequel le curseur se trouve. Outline. Ctrl-s : recherche incrementale.

Meta-% : rechercher et remplacer. Pour quitter Emacs, composer Ctrl-x Ctrl-c . Il m'est impossible de decrire dans ce document les milliers de fonctions disponibles. Exemple: si vous editez un code source et le faites traiter (par exemple pour verification lexicale-syntaxique, compilation. Homework Doing. en particulier via l'utilitaire «make» ou equivalent) via Emacs, alors pour aller a la premiere erreur il suffit de taper C-x `. Analogy Essay. Emacs place alors votre curseur a la ligne ou s'est produite l'erreur. In The Tempest. Corrigez, puis pour aller a l'endroit correspondant a l'erreur suivante tapez encore C-x ` et ainsi de suite. Analogy Essay. Pour parametrer d'autres combinaisons de touches: Si vous souhaitez en savoir plus, explorer ses panneaux d'aide ou des documents publies: joe peut emuler Emacs, ce qui epargne d'assimiler ses commandes propres tout en beneficiant d'un editeur compact et quasi partout disponible. Thesis In Filipino 2. L'invoquer pour cela avec la commande jmacs . Nous entrons maintenant dans une zone a risque. Analogy Outline. Mieux vaut donc se connecter en tant qu'utilisateur de la machine et non pas en tant qu'administrateur systeme (root), car nous risquerions par une mauvaise manipulation de supprimer des fichiers fondamentaux necessaires a son bon fonctionnement.

Nous allons donc creer un compte utilisateur, lui attribuer un mot de passe et nous loguer sur ce compte. Executez les commandes suivantes (une explication detaillee vous sera proposee dans la partie consacree a l'administration systeme): adduser le_nom_de_choix (votre prenom par exemple, mais sans accent et si possible long de moins de 8 caracteres) su le_nom_de_votre_choix (la commande su permet de se loguer sous un autre compte). Essay Service. Il suffira de saisir exit pour «revenir» a la session de travail root. Invite (prompt) de root ou d'utilisateur. L'invite proposee lorsque l'on est connecte sous compte root est souvent differente de celle d'un utilisateur sans droits etendus. Analogy Outline. Cela rappelle qu'il faut faire attention, car le compte root permet de tout casser. Thesis Greek Goddess. Traditionnellement l'invite de root est terminee par un signe diese (#) et celle d'un utilisateur (non root) par un signe dollar ($). Declarer qui est proprietaire d'un fichier ( chown ) Preambule: cette section necessite d'etre administrateur systeme, il vous faut donc vous loguer sous ce compte, par exemple en utilisant la commande su : [delcros@mistra. Chaque fichier appartient a un utilisateur ainsi qu'a un groupe. Si, par exemple, nous avons effectue un ls -l linux-test et obtenu: -rw-r-r-- 1 delcros users 9 Jul 19 19:03 linux-test. ( Note: couleurs ajoutees pour simplifier l'expose) delcros est le nom du proprietaire du fichier et users est celui du groupe auquel appartient le fichier.

L'administrateur systeme peut decider des utilisateurs membres d'un groupe, et permettre a un utilisateur de determiner lui-meme qui fera partie du groupe. Essay. Le fichier /etc/group decrit les groupes. Je peux decider par exemple que le fichier «linux-test» n'appartient plus a l'utilisateur delcros mais a l'utilisateur thomas: Pour changer a la fois le proprietaire afin de le donner a olivier et le groupe (ici: testeurs ): chown olivier.testeurs linux-test. Pour ne changer que le groupe: chown .testeurs linux-test.

Copier un fichier ou un repertoire ( cp ) La syntaxe est: cp [option] nom-fichier(s)-origine nom-fichier-ou-repertoire-destination. Par exemple pour faire une copie d'un fichier du repertoire ou l'on se trouve nomme «linux-test» en un fichier «linux-test2»: ATTENTION: si vous effectuez une copie d'un fichier sur un autre qui existe deja, le contenu de ce dernier sera remplace par celui de l'autre! Si vous souhaitez copier le fichier linux-test dans un repertoire (par exemple «/tmp»): Pour lui donner un autre nom: ). Homework Doing. -v affiche les noms des fichiers copies (pensez a v erbeux). Essay. Utile si vous souhaitez verifier le bon deroulement. Essay. -p lors de la copie les attributs des fichiers seront preserves (proprietaire, groupe, date de creation. Analogy Essay. lire chown).

L'option -r copie de maniere r ecursive, donc l'ensemble d'un repertoire et de ses sous-repertoires. Exemple: je possede dans mon repertoire «/home/delcros/personnel» un repertoire intitule «mygale» qui contient 3 sous-repertoires («echecs», «linux», «xcaissa»): Je copie le repertoire «mygale» ainsi que ses sous-repertoires dans mon repertoire «/home/delcros/» en commencant par me placer dans le repertoire recelant l'ensemble: cd /home/delcros/personnel/ puis en le recopiant: cp -r mygale /home/delcros . En associant l'option -v et -r : cp -rv mygale /home/delcros : J'ai par exemple deja copie dans le repertoire d'un utilisateur (pour qu'il en dispose) de la documentation qui se trouvait dans un repertoire «doc» dont le proprietaire etait l'administrateur systeme. Edit Service. Pour cela j'ai copie tout le repertoire et ses sous-repertoires dans le repertoire de l'utilisateur grace a la commande cp et a son option -r , puis j'ai declare l'identite du nouveau proprietaire de la copie et de ses sous-repertoires: [root@mistra delcros]# chown -R delcros.users doc . Analogy Essay. L'option -R ( r ecursive) de chown le contraint a propager son action dans les sous-repertoires, etablissant par cette seule commande le proprietaire de plusieurs repertoires et de leurs fichiers. Declarer les droits d'acces (permissions) accordes ( chmod ) Linux permet de specifier les modes d'acces (a un fichier ou repertoire) autorises, que l'on appelle droits d'acces ou «permissions». Pour voir ces droits, il suffit d'utiliser la commande ls -l nom_du_fichier , qui produira par exemple: Il y a la de nombreuses informations, certaines ne seront decrites que plus tard. Le nom du fichier, «bidule», apparait a la fin de la ligne. Le premier «adelcros» signifie que le fichier appartient a l'utilisateur «adelcros». Thesis In Filipino 2. La mention «users» signifie qu'il appartient au groupe «users». La partie qui contient -rw-r--r-- revele la nature du fichier ainsi que les permissions (droits d'acces).

Le premier de ces 10 caracteres correspond a la nature du fichier. Essay Outline. Un tiret signifie qu'il est tout ce qu'il y a de plus classique. On Prospero Tempest. Si, a la place du premier tiret, on analogy observait un d cela signifierait qu'en realite le fichier est un repertoire ( d irectory). Masters Thesis. Si on analogy outline observait un l , alors le fichier serait un lien. Decomposons les 9 derniers caracteres en 3 segments: rw- , r-- et r-- Le premier revele les droits accordes au proprietaire du fichier Le deuxieme revele les droits accordes aux comptes qui ne sont pas celui du proprietaire et faisant partie du groupe auquel appartient le fichier Le troisieme revele les droits accordes aux autres comptes. Dans chaque segment le premier caractere correspond au droit de lecture (note r , penser a r ead), le deuxieme correspond au droit d'ecriture ( w rite) et le troisieme correspond au droit d'execution ( x , e x ecution). Edit Service. Si a la place d'un des ces caracteres nous ne voyons qu'un tiret - , c'est que le droit correspondant n'est pas accorde.

«-rw-r--r--», par exemple, exprime que tous les utilisateurs ont le droit de lire le fichier et que seul son proprietaire a le droit de le modifier. Outline. Personne ne peut lancer l'execution de ce fichier puisque x n'apparait pas. Lorsque l'on traite de permissions la lettre u ( u ser) designe par convention le proprietaire du fichier, la lettre g le g roupe d'utilisateurs qui possede le fichier et la lettre o ( o thers) les autres utilisateurs. Masters. La lettre a ( a ll) fait reference a tous les utilisateurs. Essay. Cette notation est la plus facile a employer avec la commande de modification des permissions chmod . Seul le proprietaire du fichier (ainsi que root, qui dispose des pleins pouvoirs) a le pouvoir de modifier ces permissions. Etablissons par exemple que n'importe qui pourra lire et modifier un fichier nomme «linux-test»: chmod est la commande ch angeant les « mod es d'acces» a indique que tous ( a ll) les segments seront touches par la modification des permissions + signifie que l'on accorde une ou plusieurs permission(s) supplementaire(s), qui s'ajoute a celles qui sont deja etablies. Essay Edit. Pour en retrancher il suffit d'utiliser en lieu et place le signe - . Analogy Essay. Pour etablir les permissions independamment de ce qu'elles sont deja il suffit d'employer le signe = . Tempest. w signifie qu'il s'agit de la permission d'ecriture ( w rite) r signifie qu'il s'agit egalement de la permission de lecture ( r ead) Pour verifier que tout a bien fonctionne, faites un ls -l linux-test qui montrera une premiere colonne contenant -rw-rw-rw- Pour supprimer les droits d'ecriture et de lecture accordes aux membres du groupe proprietaire du fichier ainsi qu'aux autres utilisateurs: chmod go-wr linux-test. dans go le g signifie que la commande affectera les permissions accordees au g roupe proprietaire, et le o qu'elle affectera egalement celles que l'on accorde aux «autres utilisateurs» (ceux qui ne sont ni le proprietaire, ni membres du groupe auquel le fichier appartient, o ther users) wr signifie que la modification portera sur les droits d'ecriture ou de lecture. Essay. On aurait pu aussi ecrire la commande en mettant rw car l'ordre n'a pas d'importance.

Si je souhaite que le proprietaire du fichier ne puisse pas executer un fichier: Pour definir d'un seul mouvement toutes les permissions d'un fichier, on thesis peut utiliser la syntaxe suivante (nous voulons que «linux-test» soit en lecture, en ecriture et en execution pour le proprietaire, que le groupe n'ait le droit que de le lire et executer, et que les autres utilisateurs ne disposent d'aucun droit): Pour oter le droit d'y ecrire a tous sauf au proprietaire: Lorsqu'un programme (quel qu'il soit, y compris le shell) tente d'acceder a un fichier, le noyau Unix sait pour quel utilisateur le programme fonctionne. Outline. Si le fichier appartient a l'utilisateur les droits accordes au proprietaire s'appliquent. Thesis Greek Goddess. Sinon, si le fichier appartient au groupe auquel l'utilisateur appartient, alors les droits accordes au groupe auquel le fichier appartient s'appliquent. Analogy Essay Outline. Sinon les droits accordes aux autres utilisateurs seront respectes. Thesis. Exemple: Il n'est pas stupide d'interdire ainsi l'acces alors que l'utilisateur peut modifier les permissions du fichier (exemple: chmod u+r important.txt ) donc s'en accorder le droit, car cela constitue une sorte de garde-fou en cas d'erreur: un logiciel tentant d'acceder au contenu de ce fichier se le verra refuser et devra, pour obtenir satisfaction, modifier ses permissions, ce qui ne sera pas fait par hasard.

Expression numerique des permissions (systeme octal) Il n'est pas necessaire d'assimiler cette section, elle n'est destinee qu'a eclairer des choses etranges parfois rencontrees, par exemple dans des documentations. Une autre facon de declarer (definir) les permissions existe. Essay. Elle repose sur une notation numerique remplacant, d'une part par un 0 (zero) chaque droit non accorde (ceux que ls revele au moyen d'un tiret) et, d'autre part, les autres (accordes!) par un 1 (chiffre un ). Pour chaque fichier les trois segments de permission (le premier decrit les droits du proprietaire, le deuxieme ceux des membres du groupe auquel appartient le fichier, le troisieme ceux de tous les autres comptes) rassemblent chacun 3 droits (r, w, x), il y a donc 2 3 donc 8 combinaisons possibles. On Prospero In The Tempest. C'est pourquoi un systeme numerique de notation des permissions parfois adopte est dit octal. ' chmod digere cette notation.

C'est pourquoi chmod u=rwx,g=rw,o=r nom_de_fichier equivaut a chmod 764 nom_de_fichier car rwx (droits du proprietaire) correspond a 7, rw (droits des membres du groupe auquel le fichier appartient) correspond a 6, et r (droits des autres comptes) correspond a 4. Essay Outline. Les chiffres doivent etre exprimes dans l'ordre, le premier pour le proprietaire, le deuxieme pour le groupe, le troisieme pour les autres. Effectuons a nouveau une copie du fichier «linux-test» (tapez au prealable cd pour vous retrouver dans votre repertoire personnel): cp linux-test linux-test2. Pour supprimer le fichier linux-test2: rm linux-test2. Pour creer un repertoire, il suffit de taper la commande suivante (ici je cree dans «/home/delcros» un repertoire nomme personnel): mkdir personnel. Une option de mkdir est souvent utile: mkdir -p permet de creer une suite de repertoires. Supposons que je veuille creer dans mon repertoire /home/delcros la suite de repertoires suivante: doc/mygale/mail . About My Favorite. Je peux faire soit: mkdir doc , cd doc , mkdir mygale , cd mygale , mkdir mail. Ou bien utiliser l'option -p qui me permet de creer la suite de repertoires parents le plus simplement du monde: mkdir -p doc/mygale/mail. Deplacer ou renommer un fichier ( mv ) Pour comprendre la commande mv (penser a m o v e), voyons une suite de commandes qui effectuent des operations differentes: mv linux-test perso renomme le fichier linux-test en perso mv perso perso ecrase le fichier existant avec le fichier copie (dit «source»). mv personnel mon-repertoire : renomme le repertoire «personnel» en «mon-repertoire». mv perso /home/delcros/mon-repertoire : deplace le fichier «perso» dans le repertoire /home/delcros/mon-repertoire. ». Essay Outline. -i demande pour chaque fichier et chaque repertoire s'il peut ou non deplacer fichiers et repertoires (penser a i nteractif) -u demande a mv de ne pas supprimer le fichier si sa date de modification est la meme ou est plus recente que son remplacant (penser a u pdate).

Chercher un fichier ou repertoire ( find , locate , which ) Exemple simple: comment trouver un fichier portant un nom donne? find /home -name linux-test2. /home indique que nous voulons chercher a partir du repertoire «/home» -name indique que nous voulons trouver un fichier portant un nom donne. Pour chercher tous les fichiers commencant par linux-tes et definir a partir de quel repertoire on about person souhaite effectuer la recherche, on analogy essay utilise cette syntaxe: find /home/delcros -name 'linux-tes*' Le nombre d'options de find est impressionnant. Greek Goddess. En voici quelques-unes:

Indique le type de fichier que l'on recherche. Analogy Essay. Si vous cherchez seulement un repertoire vous pourrez utilisez cette option ainsi: find /usr -type d . In Filipino 2. . Outline. Ici, on thesis 2 demande a find de trouver des repertoires, et non des fichiers, grace a l'option -type d (penser a d irectory, qui signifie repertoire ) Execute une commande sur les fichiers trouves. La difference entre -exec et -ok est que la deuxieme vous demandera pour chaque fichier trouve si vous souhaitez reellement realiser l'operation: find -name 'linux-tes*' -print -ok rm ; ./linux-test. Avec l'option -exec la paire d'accolades indique l'endroit ou se trouvera, lors de l'invocation de la commande, le nom du fichier trouve. Analogy Essay. L'anti-slash lie au point virgule forme une sequence d'echappemment. La commande locate a la meme mission que find mais explore une base de donnees qui contient la liste des fichiers et repertoires. Homework Doing. Cette base de donnees est en general automatiquement mise a jour quotidiennement par le systeme. La syntaxe est: locate nom_du_fichier . Bien que la commande locate soit tres interessante, elle ne possede pas la puissance des options de find . Analogy Outline. De plus, si vous creez des fichiers pendant la journee elle ne trouvera pas avant mise a jour de sa base de donnees (le lendemain). La commande grep est un pivot des commandes UNIX.

Elle cherche une expression reguliere dans un ou plusieurs fichiers. In Filipino 2. Exemple: grep fouille linux-commande.html cherche les lignes contenant le mot fouille dans le fichier nomme «linux-commande.html». L'option -n produira le numero de chaque ligne contenant un resultat. Analogy Essay. Une autre option tres utile est -l qui permet de n'afficher que les noms des fichiers contenant ce que l'on cherche. Compactage et decompactage ( compress , gzip , bzip2 , 7zip ) Il est obsolete, ne pas utiliser. Si vous rencontrez un fichier d'extension .Z vous pouvez le decompacter grace a gzip: gzip -d nom_du_fichier .Z . Efficace et tres repandu. Pour compacter un fichier: gzip nom_du_fichier , cela creera un fichier nom_du_fichier.gz et detruira l'original. Pour decompacter: gzip -d nom_du_fichier .gz , qui recreera l'original et supprimera la version compactee. Sa syntaxe et son comportement correspondent a ceux de gzip.

Pour compacter un fichier: bzip2 nom_du_fichier. Pour decompacter: bzip2 -d nom_du_fichier .bz2. La commande tar gere des archives, contenant chacune au moins un repertoire ou fichier. Vous aurez souvent besoin de tar xzf nom_du_fichier .tar.gz , qui decompacte une archive au format .tar.gz ou .tgz . L'extension .tar.gz indique que le fichier est une archive tar et qu'il est compacte ( .gz revele qu'il l'est avec gz ip). Les arguments employes dans la commande precedente («xzf») peuvent etre ainsi compris: x (e x traction) declenche l'extraction de certains fichiers d'une archive (lorsque l'on ne specifie pas les noms des fichiers que l'on souhaite extraire de l'archive, tar les extrait tous) z compacte ou decompacte l'archive grace a g z ip f traite un f ichier-archive dont le nom suit (ici: « nom_du_fichier .tar.gz») Pour connaitre la liste des fichiers contenus dans une archive compactee on person emploiera tar tvzf nom_du_fichier .tar.gz. t dresse lis t e du contenu de l'archive v est le mode v erbeux, qui montre tout. Si je me trouve dans le repertoire ««/home/delcros/»» la commande suivante creera une archive du repertoire «/home/delcros/personnel»: tar cvjf personnel.bz2 personnel. c tar va c reer une archive j tar compacte l'archive grace a bzip2. Connaitre l'espace disque utilise ( df et du ) La commande df permet de connaitre l'emplacement de montage des systemes de fichiers accessibles sur votre systeme et leurs capacites restantes. La commande du permet de connaitre l'encombrement sur disque du repertoire specifie et ses sous-repertoires.

Controler les ressources utilisees par les processus ( top , ps , kill ) La commande top affiche en continu des informations decrivant l'activite du systeme. Essay Outline. Elle permet surtout de suivre les ressources que les processus utilisent (quantite de memoire, pourcentage de CPU. Search. ). Vous pourrez utiliser l'option -d pour specifier des delais de rafraichissement (en secondes). Sous top il est possible d'expedier de maniere interactive un signal a un processus, par exemple afin de le stopper, en tapant k . top demande ensuite quel signal il doit envoyer et 15 (SIGTERM) est le signal par defaut qui met fin a un processus, 9 (SIGKILL) est beaucoup plus brutal et a eviter. Pour quitter top , appuyer simplement sur la touche q. La commande ps dresse liste des processus actifs: ps. Le PID est l'identificateur d'un processus, c'est un nombre. Analogy Essay. Chaque processus est identifie dans le systeme par un nombre unique. About My Favorite Person. Le TTY indique a quel port de terminal est associe le processus. Analogy. STAT indique l'etat ( stat us) dans lequel se trouve le processus. Dans l'exemple, trois processus sont endormis (S comme s leep), et un autre en cours d'execution (R comme r un).

Ce dernier n'est autre que la commande ps que nous venons de lancer, qui se «voit elle-meme». Search Thesis. Le TIME indique le temps total durant lequel le processus profita du microprocesseur. Essay Outline. COMMAND precise, comme son nom l'indique, la commande qui crea le processus. Une simple commande ps n'indique pas tous les processus du systeme. 2. Le simple fait de lancer ps nous a juste indique les processus associes a un terminal qui dependent de l'utilisateur courant. Analogy Essay. En fait, il est tout a fait probable que d'autres processus non lies a un terminal soient actifs: ps -ax les revelera. Si en plus vous voulez connaitre les utilisateurs associes a chaque processus, il vous suffit d'utiliser l'option aux . Thesis. Vous verrez alors plusieurs colonnes s'ajouter, dont USER qui indique a quel utilisateur appartient le processus. Essay. %CPU indique en pourcentage les ressources actuelles du microprocesseur utilisees par le processus. Thesis. %MEM montre en pourcentage la proportion de memoire vive dans la memoire utilisee par le processus, elle-meme fournie dans la colonne RSS. Essay Outline. START indique l'heure a laquelle le processus a ete lance. Cette commande permet d'afficher les processus sous forme d'arborescence, donc de voir leurs inter-dependances: pstree. On voit par exemple ici que j'utilise «Fvwmpager» qui a lui-meme ete lance par «fvwm». La commande kill permet d'expedier un signal a un processus.

Sa syntaxe est la suivante: kill [options] PID. Elle est souvent utilisee afin d'interrompre un programme sans IHM ou recalcitrant. Essay Person. Si j'ai lance un programme donne, par exemple xeyes , un processus sera actif. Essay. Si je le lance deux fois, deux processus seront actifs, et ainsi de suite. Homework Doing. Pour demander a un processus de cesser de fonctionner (on parle de le «tuer»), je peux d'abord invoquer ps auxw pour connaitre son PID, si par exemple le PID est 592, le tuer en invoquant kill 592.

La premiere colonne presente le PID et la derniere le nom du programme invoque. Essay. La seconde ligne, ici, correspond au grep invoque, qui se «voit ainsi lui-meme». Seul l'utilisateur auquel le processus appartient (ou root) peut le tuer. La commande killall tue un processus mais au lieu de fournir son PID vous indiquerez son nom (la commande qui le lanca). Service. Si plusieurs processus y correspondent vous tentez ainsi de tous les tuer, mieux vaut utiliser l'option -i (pour i nteractif) qui demande confirmation avant de tenter d'arreter un processus. Un processus peut se trouver dans un etat ne permettant pas de lui demander de s'interrompre. Analogy. Tenter en ce cas de lui expedier le signal HUP puis INT en invoquant par exemple kill -HUP PID . Thesis 2. S'il fait la sourde oreille demander au noyau de le tuer sans condition en lui expediant KILL («KILL» est ici le libelle d'un signal). Essay. Attention: le signal KILL ne laisse pas le processus ainsi condamne prendre des dispositions parfois souhaitables ou necessaires, par exemple fermer un fichier, donc peut endommager ou perdre des donnees voire causer des dysfonctionnements. Redirection (des entrees/sorties d'executables) Lorsque vous saisissez des donnees a mesure recues par un processus vous fournissez des elements a traiter, appeles entrees, grace au clavier. Essay. L'activite des processus produit des sorties (resultats), le plus souvent par defaut affiches.

L'entree de donnees peut se faire par un canal autre que le clavier, en indiquant par exemple un fichier qui contient les donnees a traiter. Analogy Essay. Le canal de sortie peut lui aussi etre dirige ailleurs que vers l'ecran, par exemple vers un fichier dont on thesis goddess pourra ensuite continuer a traiter le contenu. On peut egalement recevoir ou expedier des donnees a chacun des peripheriques connectes, auquel correspond un «fichier special» dans le repertoire «/dev». Le shell offre un moyen de gerer tout cela, en interconnectant a loisir ces canaux, grace aux redirections. Comment faire, par exemple, pour que la commande less , qui affiche le contenu d'un fichier, le place plutot dans un fichier? C'est le signe qui va nous permettre cela. Dans un premier temps, je veux voir le contenu du fichier nomme «test»: less test . Outline. La commande less affiche son resultat vers la sortie standard qui est le terminal.

Dans un deuxieme temps, je veux placer le fichier «test» dans un fichier «test2»: less test test2 . Essay About Person. Ce n'est qu'une copie du fichier test en test2. Essay Outline. La commande cp permet aussi de le faire. Plusieurs types de redirections existent: nom_de_fichier redirige vers le fichier nomme ce que produit le programme. In Filipino 2. Exemple: ls ls.txt nom_de_fichier permet comme le signe de rediriger le canal de sortie standard vers le fichier nomme. Essay Outline. Si ce dernier existe deja, ce qui provient du canal de sortie sera ajoute apres ce qui y existe deja alors qu'avec un simple le contenu existant serait remplace (ecrase) nom_de_fichier redirige le canal d'entree standard, qui devient le contenu du fichier nomme. Thesis Greek. Exemple: less ls.txt . Analogy Outline. Cela revient apparemment a ce que montre less ls.txt mais est subtilement different car interdit a less d'acceder directement au fichier en demandant au shell d'en copier le contenu sur le canal d'entree standard de less , qui ne pourra savoir d'ou il vient nom_de_fichier redirige sortie standard et erreur standard vers un seul et meme fichier. Ce sont les formes les plus frequemment employees. Toutes ces formes sont des versions simplifiees. Essay In The. Pour maitriser tout cela il faut savoir que l'entree standard dans un systeme Unix est le clavier, designe par le descripteur de fichier numerote 0. Analogy Outline. Par defaut le terminal est la sortie standard, ce descripteur de fichier est designe par le chiffre 1. Homework Doing. Il existe un troisieme descripteur de fichier classique qui est le canal de sortie des erreurs produites par l'execution d'une commande, designe par le chiffre 2. Outline. Dans les exemples suivant la lettre n remplace l'un de ces chiffres: n nom_de_fichier redirige ce qui sort via le descripteur n (vers le fichier nomme). Thesis Goddess. Par exemple, si vous souhaitez obtenir les erreurs standards (donc le canal 2) dans un fichier nomme monprogramme.err : nom_de_commande 2 monprogramme.err n nom_de_fichier declare le fichier nomme comme correspondant au descripteur n duplique la sortie standard vers le fichier correspondant au descripteur n n duplique l'entree standard depuis le fichier correspondant au descripteur n. A premiere vue, on analogy se demande bien a quoi servent certaines des redirections. On Prospero In The. On le decouvre en employant le shell.

L'une des plus utiles redirections est 21 qui redirige le canal des erreurs vers la sortie standard. Analogy Essay. Elle est tres appreciee des utilisateurs lorsqu'ils souhaitent conserver la liste des messages d'erreur produits par un programme: nom_du_programme 21 erreurs nom_du_programme .tmp. Les canaux sont autant de tuyaux vehiculant les donnees, que l'on peut assembler librement grace aux redirections fournies par le shell. Thesis. Cela mene a la plomberie. Interconnexion de commandes: les pipes. Le mot pipe designe la barre verticale (|) obtenue avec la combinaison de touches AltGr + 6 sur les claviers francais classiques, ou Altgr + 1 sur les claviers franco-belges. Un tube passe le resultat d'une commande a une autre, sans passer par une redirection qui impliquerait un fichier temporaire. Un exemple permettra de comprendre tout cela. Je veux savoir quels sont les processus bash qui fonctionnent sur le systeme, mais je veux que la commande ps aux ne me fournisse que les lignes qui contiennent le mot bash pour m'epargner de lire tout ce qu'elle produit. Avec ce que nous connaissons deja il nous faudrait une premiere commande visant a obtenir la liste des processus bash actifs et a la placer dans un fichier temporaire: ps aux temporaire.tmp . Essay Outline. Puis nous pourrions mobiliser grep: grep bash temporaire.tmp afin d'obtenir le resultat souhaite. Service. Il ne resterait plus qu'a nettoyer: rm temporaire.tmp . Employer un tube realise l'equivalent en sollicitant moins le systeme, qui n'aura rien a stocker temporairement: ps aux | grep bash.

On peut dire que l'on a lance un traitement qui connecte les deux commandes ( ps et grep ) entre elles, de sorte que ce que la premiere citee produit soit immediatement communique a l'autre. Analogy Essay Outline. Vous pouvez ainsi en connecter autant que vous voulez: commande1 | commande2 | commande3 . Masters Thesis. | commandeN. Si on analogy outline prend conscience de l'utilite des tubes, on essay edit service les utilise et on analogy outline finit par ne plus vouloir s'en passer. Un lien est un type special de fichier qui permet a plusieurs noms de fichiers de faire reference au meme contenu sur le disque. Homework Doing. Ce sont des sortes de «synonymes», d'aliases. Un lien dur associe deux ou plusieurs fichiers a un meme espace sur le disque, en preservant toutefois leurs independances lors de modifications de leurs contenus. Exemple: creons un fichier (dont le contenu importe peu) nomme linux-test grace a echo toto linux-test. Puis creons un lien dur vers ce fichier: ln linux-test linux-test-lien-dur. Le fichier «linux-test-lien-dur» est cree dans le repertoire courant.

Si vous faites un ls -l vous constaterez que «linux-test» et «linux-test-lien-dur» ont la meme taille. Analogy Essay Outline. Ils semblent independants mais en realite un seul contenu (commun aux deux) existe pour le moment. Goddess. Si le fichier «linux-test-lien-dur» est modifie, nous aurons automatiquement une modification du fichier «linux-test» (et vice-versa), car elle s'effectuera physiquement sur le disque dur a l'endroit stockant le contenu des deux fichiers. Si nous creons un lien symbolique : ln -s linux-test linux-test-lien-symb. ls -l montrera le nom du fichier «linux-test-lien-symb» suivi d'une fleche revelant qu'il pointe sur «linux-test». Essay Outline. Toute reference au fichier «linux-test-lien-symb» impliquera en realite le fichier «linux-test». En resume un lien symbolique est un fichier de petite taille qui a une existence propre et contient le nom du fichier auquel il correspond. Dans le cas d'un lien dur , la suppression de l'un des deux fichiers n'affectera pas l'autre. Edit Service. Dans le cas d'un lien symbolique, la suppression du fichier originel (la cible du lien) rendra le lien symbolique inutilisable car il ne correspondra plus a un fichier valide et sera donc dit casse (pendouillant). Les liens sont utiles si vous souhaitez qu'un fichier apparaisse dans plusieurs repertoires, ou sous un nom different. Outline. Si le fichier est encombrant une copie par cp entrainerait un gachis alors qu'un lien permettra de reduire l'utilisation d'espace disque.

Mieux: n'etablir que des liens (au lieu de copier) garantit que toute modification concernera toutes les «copies» dispersees. Syntaxe: ln nom-fichier-source nom-fichier-lien. -s cree un lien symbolique. Homework Doing. Dans la plupart des cas c'est ce qui est adequat, le lien dur est en fait rarement employe. Essay. -b realise une sauvegarde d'un fichier existant et dont nous aurions utilise le nom, avant de l'ecraser. My Favorite Person. -i demande a l'utilisateur, si le lien existe, s'il souhaite l'ecraser. Lorsque l'on utilise les memes commandes avec de nombreuses options fixes il est utile de remplacer le tout par un ordre tres court declare comme une sorte de synonyme. Outline. Il est appele «alias». Les alias sont declares dans le fichier « /.bashrc»). Homework Doing. Voici un exemple classique de declaration d'alias: alias ll=ls -NlF --color=auto , qui cree une commande ll appelant ls avec des options ameliorant la presentation.

La variable $* designe tous les parametres communiques lors de l'appel de l'alias: Plutot que de saisir souvent tar -tvzf nom_de_fichier ou pourra ainsi preferer creer un alias: alias montar=tar -tvzf $* , puis employer montar nom_de_fichier. La commande unalias supprime de facon definitive un alias. Analogy Essay. Son option -a (pour all ) commande suppression de tous les alias. Certains alias sont declares dans des fichiers executes par bash lors de son demarrage, par exemple « /.bashrc». Greek Goddess. En ce cas il faut commenter la ligne definissant l'alias dans le dit fichier pour le supprimer definitivement, sinon il ne le sera que durant la session en cours.

La commande man est utile. Analogy. Lui fournir en argument le nom de la commande ou du logiciel sur lequel porte la question. Essay Service. Exemple: man cp . Outline. Pour quitter le man appuyer sur la touche q.

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Writing Essays | ESSAY OUTLINE I Introduction pdf 0 66 Кб

Municipalities Continuing Disclosure Cooperation Initiative. The Municipalities Continuing Disclosure Cooperation Initiative (the “MCDC Initiative”) is intended to address potentially widespread violations of the federal securities laws by municipal issuers and underwriters of municipal securities in connection with certain representations about continuing disclosures in essay outline bond offering documents. As described below, under the MCDC Initiative, the Division of Enforcement (the “Division”) of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) will recommend favorable settlement terms to thesis 2, issuers and obligated persons involved in the offer or sale of municipal securities (collectively, “issuers”) as well as underwriters of such offerings if they self-report to the Division possible violations involving materially inaccurate statements relating to essay outline, prior compliance with the continuing disclosure obligations specified in Rule 15c2-12 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”). 1. Rule 15c2-12 generally prohibits any underwriter from purchasing or selling municipal securities unless the issuer has committed to providing continuing disclosure regarding the security and issuer, including information about its financial condition and operating data. 2 Rule 15c2-12 also generally requires that any final official statement prepared in connection with a primary offering of municipal securities contain a description of any instances in thesis greek goddess the previous five years in which the issuer failed to comply, in all material respects, with any previous commitment to provide such continuing disclosure.

The Commission may file enforcement actions under either Section 17(a) of the outline, Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”), and/or Section 10(b) of the thesis goddess, Exchange Act against issuers for inaccurately stating in final official statements that they have substantially complied with their prior continuing disclosure obligations. Analogy. In such instances, underwriters for these bond offerings may also have violated the anti-fraud provisions to the extent they failed to exercise adequate due diligence in determining whether issuers have complied with such obligations, and as a result, failed to form a reasonable basis for believing the truthfulness of a key representation in the issuer’s official statement. For instance, on July 29, 2013, the Commission charged a school district in Indiana and its underwriter with falsely stating to bond investors that the school district had been properly providing annual financial information and notices required as part of its prior bond offerings. Thesis Greek. 3 Without admitting or denying the Commission’s findings, the analogy, school district and underwriter each consented to, among other things, an order to cease and desist from committing or causing any violations of Section 10(b) of the Exchange Act and Rule 10b-5. The underwriter also agreed to pay disgorgement and prejudgment interest of $279,446 as well as a penalty of $300,000. The Commission has in the past emphasized that the likelihood that an issuer will abide by its continuing disclosure obligations is critical to on prospero in the, any evaluation of its covenants. Essay. An underwriter’s obligation to have a reasonable basis to believe that the key representations in a final official statement are true and accurate extends to an issuer’s representations concerning past compliance with disclosure obligations. Edit. Indeed, this provision of Rule 15c2-12 was specifically intended to serve as an outline incentive for issuers to comply with their undertakings to provide disclosures in search masters the secondary market for municipal securities, and also assists underwriters and analogy others in on prospero in the assessing the reliability of the issuer’s disclosure representations. Moreover, the Commission has in the past stated that it believes that it is doubtful that an analogy essay underwriter could form a reasonable basis for relying on the accuracy or completeness of an issuer’s ongoing disclosure representations without the underwriter affirmatively inquiring as to that filing history, and thesis greek the underwriter may not rely solely on a written certification from an issuer that it has provided all filings or notices. 4.

Based on available information, and as highlighted in analogy the Commission’s August 2012 Municipal Market Report, there is significant concern that many issuers have not been complying with their obligation to file continuing disclosure documents and that federal securities law violations involving false statements concerning such compliance may be widespread. A. Who Should Consider Self-Reporting to the Division? Issuers who may have made materially inaccurate statements in a final official statement regarding their prior compliance with their continuing obligations as described in Rule 15c2-12 should consider self-reporting to the Division to take advantage of the MCDC Initiative. Underwriters of offerings in which the edit service, final official statement contains materially inaccurate statements regarding an issuer's prior compliance with continuing disclosure obligations should also consider self-reporting under the MCDC Initiative. Such underwriters may include the lead underwriter in an underwriting syndicate of such offerings or the sole underwriter in such offerings, and includes both competitive and negotiated underwritings. Issuers or underwriters that have already been contacted by analogy essay outline, the Division as of the date of this announcement regarding possible inaccurate statements as to past compliance with continuing disclosure obligations, but against whom no enforcement action has yet been taken, may be eligible for the MCDC Initiative and should contact the Enforcement staff to discuss eligibility. B. When and What Must Issuers and Underwriters Self Report? To be eligible for the MCDC Initiative, an issuer or underwriter must self-report by accurately completing the attached questionnaire and submitting it within the following applicable time periods: For underwriters, beginning March 10, 2014 and ending at 12:00 a.m. EST on September 10, 2014; and For issuers, beginning March 10, 2014 and ending at 5:00 p.m. EST on December 1, 2014.

Information required by the questionnaire includes: identification and thesis 2 contact information of the self-reporting entity; information regarding the municipal securities offerings containing the potentially inaccurate statements; identities of the lead underwriter, municipal advisor, bond counsel, underwriter’s counsel and disclosure counsel, if any, and analogy the primary contact person at each entity, for essay, each such offering; any facts that the self-reporting entity would like to provide to assist the staff in understanding the circumstances that may have led to the potentially inaccurate statement(s); and a statement that the self-reporting entity intends to consent to the applicable settlement terms under the analogy essay, MCDC Initiative. Submissions may be made by greek, email to analogy essay, MCDCsubmissions@sec.gov , by fax to (301) 847-4713 or by mail to MCDC Initiative, U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Boston Regional Office, 33 Arch Street, Boston, MA 02110. C. Standardized Settlement Terms the Division Will Recommend. To the extent an search entity meets the requirements of the essay outline, MCDC Initiative and the Division decides to recommend enforcement action against the entity (“eligible issuer” or “eligible underwriter”), the Division will recommend that the about person, Commission accept a settlement which includes the terms described below. 5. 1. Types of Proceedings and Nature of Charges.

For eligible issuers, the Division will recommend that the analogy outline, Commission accept a settlement pursuant to thesis, which the issuer consents to the institution of analogy a cease and desist proceeding under Section 8A of the Securities Act for violation(s) of Section 17(a)(2) of the Securities Act. 6 The Division will recommend a settlement in 2 which the issuer neither admits nor denies the essay outline, findings of the Commission. For eligible underwriters, the search masters thesis, Division will recommend that the Commission accept a settlement pursuant to which the underwriter consents to the institution of a cease and desist proceeding under Section 8A of the essay outline, Securities Act and about person administrative proceedings under Section 15(b) of the Exchange Act for essay, violation(s) of Section 17(a)(2) of the Securities Act. The Division will recommend a settlement in homework doing which the underwriter neither admits nor denies the findings of the Commission. For eligible issuers, the settlement to be recommended by the Division must include undertakings by the issuers. Specifically, as part of the settlement, the issuer must undertake to: establish appropriate policies and procedures and training regarding continuing disclosure obligations within 180 days of the institution of the proceedings; comply with existing continuing disclosure undertakings, including updating past delinquent filings within 180 days of the analogy outline, institution of the proceedings; cooperate with any subsequent investigation by the Division regarding the false statement(s), including the roles of essay about individuals and/or other parties involved; disclose in a clear and conspicuous fashion the settlement terms in analogy essay outline any final official statement for an offering by the issuer within five years of the essay, date of institution of the proceedings; and outline provide the Commission staff with a compliance certification regarding the search thesis, applicable undertakings by the issuer on the one year anniversary of the date of institution of the proceedings.

For eligible underwriters, the settlement to be recommended by the Division must include undertakings by the underwriters. Specifically, as part of the settlement, the underwriter must undertake to: retain an independent consultant, not unacceptable to the Commission staff, to analogy essay outline, conduct a compliance review and, within 180 days of the essay, institution of proceedings, provide recommendations to the underwriter regarding the underwriter’s municipal underwriting due diligence process and procedures; within 90 days of the independent consultant’s recommendations, take reasonable steps to enact such recommendations; provided that the analogy, underwriter make seek approval from the Commission staff to not adopt recommendations that the underwriter can demonstrate to be unduly burdensome; cooperate with any subsequent investigation by the Division regarding the false statement(s), including the about person, roles of individuals and/or other parties involved; and. provide the Commission staff with a compliance certifications regarding the applicable undertakings by the Underwriter on the one year anniversary of the analogy outline, date of institution of the proceedings. For eligible issuers, the Division will recommend that the thesis in filipino, Commission accept a settlement in which there is no payment of analogy essay any civil penalty by the issuer. For eligible underwriters, the Division will recommend that the essay on prospero in the, Commission accept a settlement in which the underwriter consents to an order requiring payment of essay outline a civil penalty as described below: For offerings of $30 million or less, the underwriter will be required to pay a civil penalty of $20,000 per offering containing a materially false statement; For offerings of more than $30 million, the underwriter will be required to pay a civil penalty of $60,000 per offering containing a materially false statement; However, no underwriter will be required to pay a total amount of civil penalties under the essay in the, MCDC Initiative greater than the following: For an essay outline underwriter with total revenue over $100 million as reported in homework doing the underwriter’s Annual Audited Report Form X-17A-5 Part III for the underwriter’s fiscal year 2013: $500,000; For an underwriter with total revenue between $20 million and $100 million as reported in the underwriter’s Annual Audited Report Form X-17A-5 Part III for analogy outline, the underwriter’s fiscal year 2013: $250,000; and thesis in filipino 2 For an underwriter with total revenue below $20 million as reported in the underwriter’s Annual Audited Report Form X-17A-5 Part III for the underwriter’s fiscal year 2013: $100,000. D. No Assurances Offered with Respect to analogy essay, Individual Liability. The MCDC Initiative covers only essay edit eligible issuers and underwriters. The Division provides no assurance that individuals associated with those entities, such as municipal officials and employees of underwriting firms, will be offered similar terms if they have engaged in violations of the federal securities laws. The Division may recommend enforcement action against such individuals and may seek remedies beyond those available through the MCDC Initiative.

Assessing whether to recommend enforcement action against an individual for violations of the analogy essay, federal securities laws necessarily involves a case-by-case assessment of specific facts and circumstances, including evidence regarding the level of intent and other factors such as cooperation by the individual. E. No Assurances for about, Entities That Do Not Take Advantage of MCDC Initiative. For issuers and underwriters that would be eligible for the terms of the outline, MCDC initiative but that do not self-report pursuant to the terms of the MCDC Initiative, the Division offers no assurances that it will recommend the above terms in any subsequent enforcement recommendation. Greek. As noted above, assessing whether to recommend enforcement action necessarily involves a case-by-case assessment of specific facts and circumstances, but entities are cautioned that enforcement actions outside of the MCDC initiative could result in analogy the Division or the Commission seeking remedies beyond those described in the initiative. For issuers, the Division will likely recommend and seek financial sanctions. For underwriters, the Division will likely recommend and on prospero in the seek financial sanctions in amounts greater than those available pursuant to outline, the MCDC Initiative. Questions regarding the about person, MCDC Initiative may be directed to MCDCinquiries@sec.gov. 1 Recommendations by analogy essay outline, the Division to the Commission are subject to approval by the Commission. 2 The issuers’ agreement to make such disclosures is memorialized in a written undertaking frequently called a Continuing Disclosure Agreement.

The Continuing Disclosure Agreement requires that issuer to file annual financial information and notices of certain material events with the Electronic Municipal Market Access, or EMMA, an electronic information repository system maintained by the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board (MSRB), which is accessible to all investors on the internet. 3 In the Matter of West Clark Community Schools , AP File No. 3-15391 (July 29, 2013); In the Matter of City Securities Corporation and in the Randy G. Ruhl , AP File No. Analogy Outline. 3-15390 (July 29, 2013). 4 See “Municipal Securities Disclosure,” Securities Exchange Act Release No. 34961 (November 10, 1994), 59 FR 59590, supra notes 50-54 (November 17, 1994). See also “Amendments to Municipal Securities Disclosure,” Securities Exchange Act Release No. 34-62184A (May 26, 2010), 75 FR 331100, supra n. 348-362 (June 10, 2010). 5 The standardized settlement terms of the MCDC Initiative are only about my favorite applicable to analogy essay, inaccurate statements concerning compliance with continuing disclosure obligations. The MCDC Initiative and the standardized settlement terms are not applicable to essay, other material misstatements in final official statements or related communications or other misconduct.

Any other potential misconduct is subject to analogy essay, investigation and separate enforcement action, if appropriate. Essay About My Favorite Person. If enforcement action is analogy essay, taken, entities may be subject to additional remedies for that misconduct, including additional financial sanctions. 6 Violations of Section 17(a)(2) require a finding of negligent conduct.

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amistad story essay “Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed people can change the world. Indeed, it’s the only thing that ever has.” -- Margaret Mead Why should my students study the Amistad case? The answer is essay outline quite simple: it is a fascinating narrative for several reasons. In fact, it was really the first civil rights case in in filipino, this country. It happened before the Civil War, at a time when black people had few rights, if any at all.

It is essay outline a David and thesis greek goddess Goliath story, good vs. evil, right vs. wrong. The case illustrates how the people of New Haven came together for a just cause. It caught popular attention right from the start as is seen in the images published by John Warner Barber in 1840. “The incident raised fundamental moral, social, legal, religious, diplomatic, and political questions, and had an impact on American history that continues to be felt today.” 1. The case still has relevance today. Connecticut State Senator Toni N. Harp, D-10 was quoted as saying, “Americans should use the analogy Amistad spirit to speak out against every attempt to curb freedom in the 21st century.” 2 According to search thesis, “The Amistad Memorial brochure published by The Amistad Committee, Inc., “the triumph of the Amistad teaches us one of the most important lessons of our time: together we can overcome all odds and strengthen our mutual needs for freedom and quality of life.” The story began in Sierra Leone in 1839. Fifty three members of the Mende tribe were kidnapped and taken to the island of analogy essay outline, Lomboko.

There, the captives were put aboard a Portuguese slave ship named the Tecora. On board, were approximately 500 Africans that would be taken to Havana, Cuba to be sold. 3 “A treaty between Great Britain and Spain, which controlled Cuba, made transporting Africans to Cuba for sale technically illegal after 1820.” 4 This did not stop the thesis in filipino 2 African’s from being sold with false documentation. Two Spaniards, Jose Ruiz and Pedro Montes, purchased the 53 captives in Havana and boarded them on the schooner La Amistad on June 28, 1839. The captives were to be transported to the other end of essay, Cuba, a voyage that should have taken three days. Cinque (also known at Singbe) was the unofficial leader of the group.

He was able to use a loose nail to break free of the shackles and then freed the others. Next, there came a mutiny. The Africans killed the captain and most of the crew. Ruiz and Montes were kept alive so that they could sail the on prospero in the tempest boat back to essay, Africa. Search Masters Thesis. “Cinque had observed that the Tecora had sailed toward the setting sun as it took them away from analogy essay outline Africa. To return to Africa, he reasoned, the Amistad should head toward the rising sun.” 5 Ruiz and Montes sailed east during the day, but at night turned the boat west, back towards the United States. For weeks, the homework doing schooner zigzagged up the coast towards New England. On August 26 the USS Washington of the U.S.

Navy intercepted the analogy outline schooner about a mile off the coast of Long Island. Ruiz and Montes were only able to give their side of the story and the Africans as well as the vessel were taken to New London. The 53 Africans were transported to the Jail in New Haven. 6. The supposition is that the navy took the schooner and the captives to Connecticut rather than New York for one simple reason. “Slavery was legal in Connecticut and not in thesis goddess, New York, which meant the salvage rights to slave property, would not be considered in essay, New York courts. 7. The Amistad’s cargo and the captives themselves would have been worth $60,000 in 1839. The Captain and crew of the USS Washington thus would have had a right to the salvage under Connecticut law, but not under New York law. 8. There were several issues that needed to be settled by the courts. Homework Doing. “The Africans had to be defended (1) against claims by the U.S. Analogy Essay. Navy, who seized the boat and wanted claims against the property (2) the Spanish owners who wanted the slaves and property back, and (3) against murder and mutiny charges.” 9 Also at question was the Anglo-Saxon Treaty of 1817, which outlawed slave trade in Spain and thesis 2 its colonies, including Cuba. 10. “The essential issue throughout the affair was a conflict between human rights and property rights -- whether natural law as the abolitionists defined it was to take precedence over essay what they regarded as positive, man-made law.” 11 This was because the Circuit court judge, Smith Thompson, “preferred to evade the larger debate over search thesis abolition and rested his decision on jurisdictional grounds.” 12.

Yale Professor Josiah Gibbs was part of the group of New Haven abolitionists dedicated to helping the Africans legally and analogy essay outline financially. Professor Gibbs found two Mende speakers on the docks in New York. James Covey, a freed slave from Sierra Leone, and Charles Pratt, a native of Mende who had also been enslaved by a Spanish slave trader. 13 These two men were essential in having the captives tell their story in homework doing, their own voice. The Africans went through three rounds of court proceedings. The first was in the Circuit Court in Hartford in September 1839.

During this time, the Africans were held in the Hartford jail. They were transported to analogy outline, Hartford, on barges by way of the Farmington Canal. The Farmington canal line ran from New Haven, through Farmington, to masters thesis, Northampton, Massachusetts. The second was in the District Court in New Haven in January 1840. The appeal reached the analogy essay outline U.S. Supreme Court in Washington D.C. in February of 1841. Finally, on March 9, 1840 the U.S. Homework Doing. Supreme Court issued the essay outline verdict that the Africans were free men. The story does not end there. The thirty-six remaining Africans were again transported along the canal line to Farmington to live while abolitionists raised money for essay their return to Sierra Leone.

Farmington’s many abolitionist residents took an interest in the case during their trials in New Haven and analogy essay outline Hartford. Finally, in November of 1841, The Gentleman sailed from New York to return the Africans to Sierra Leone. There has been an homework doing, ebb and flow of outline, popular interest in the Amistad case. The public’s interest has been motivated by various reasons. At the time of the first trial, when the Africans were being held in the New Haven jail, they were treated as a tourist attraction. “The jailer charged ‘one New York shilling’ (about 12 cents) for homework doing a look at analogy, the captives. The Africans also attracted scientific interest. A phrenologist examined the captives and in filipino took ‘life masks’ which were later put on public display.” 14 Phrenology is the antiquated “study of the conformation of the skull based on the belief that it is indicative of analogy outline, mental faculties and character”. 15.

In 1840, John Warner Barber published a pamphlet of the case, A History of the Amistad Captives. Included in this were several engravings. Homework Doing. One engraving, “Death of Captain Ferrer, The Capture of the Amistad” shows the violent death of the essay outline Captain at the hands of the Africans. Wax figures of the Africans went on tour. The figures spent several weeks in Peale’s Museum in 2, New York City.

16 While the public’s interest was of a voyeuristic nature, the abolitionists had intentions of helping the cause of the Africans. Their efforts included an event at the Broadway Tabernacle in New York City that displayed the African’s accomplishments. 17. Interior of a Slave Ship from John Warner Barber’s A History of the Amistad Captives , 1840, New Haven Museum and Historical Society 18. Death of Captain Ferrer, The Capture of the essay outline Amistad from John Warner Barber’s A History of the Amistad Captives , 1840, New Haven Museum and Historical Society 19. In opposition to the circus-like atmosphere that surrounded the captives, was the portrait of Cinque by Nathaniel Jocelyn. The portrait, painted in 1840, was the first depiction of an African as more than just a slave.

Cinque is portrayed in a classical white toga, holding a staff. This pose was usually reserved for “heroic white figures.” 20 Because of the content of the painting, the Artist Fund Society of Philadelphia refused to exhibit the portrait in its annual exhibition. They claimed that ‘to display it might prove injurious both to the proprietors and the institution.’ Outraged, Jocelyn resigned his membership in the Society.” 21. Cinque by Nathaniel Jocelyn, circa 1840. New Haven Museum and search thesis Historical Society 22. After the Africans returned to Sierra Leone, interest in the case declined.

It was not until the twentieth century that we see another depiction of the Amistad case in New Haven. New Haven became home to several murals funded by the Federal Arts Project during the 1930s. George Dudley Seymour wrote to the project director in essay outline, 1933 asking that the Amistad event, which was significant in New Haven’s history, be the subject of a mural. Instead of referencing the historical debate between slavery and abolitionism, or the legal debate that sent the case to the Supreme Court, Theodore Sizer chose to about my favorite, depict the African captives on analogy outline the New Haven Green performing for the crowds. 23. Nineteen eighty-nine was the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the Amistad incident. It was for this celebration that the city chose to commemorate the case in a markedly different way than it had in the past. Masters Thesis. The New Haven Museum and Historical Society prepared an exhibition of images and objects from analogy essay outline its collection as well as from the thesis Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, Connecticut. The exhibit, titled, Free men: the Amistad revolt and the American Anti-Slavery Movement, spent five months at the New Haven Museum and analogy five months at the Wadsworth Atheneum.

At the closing of the exhibition, the objects and images that belonged to the New Haven Museum became part of their permanent exhibit, Cinque Lives Here . In 1989, The Amistad Committee, Inc. was established in New Haven to promote understanding of this important event. The committee commissioned sculptor Ed Hamilton to 2, create a bronze sculpture depicting the event. The fourteen-foot sculpture, The Amistad Memorial, stands in analogy essay, front of New Haven City Hall, former site of the jail where the captives were held. The memorial has three sides, each depicting Cinque in a different pose, one in traditional African clothes, one in western clothes in the courtroom, and one after he won his freedom. The statue was dedicated in 1992, again bringing a renewed interest in the case. The artist came to New Haven and essay about my favorite person spoke to many students in New Haven schools. Amistad Memorial, in front of New Haven City Hall. The May 1999 release of the Steven Spielberg movie “Amistad” created national and analogy outline international interest in the case.

The Academy Award nominated movie starred Matthew McConnaughey, Morgan Freeman, and Anthony Hopkins. The following year, a replica of the ship, built at Mystic Seaport, Mystic, Connecticut made its maiden voyage. It is an almost exact replica of the schooner, with additional room for an engine and a bathroom. The boat has made its home in New Haven harbor as well as making voyages to edit service, Sierra Leone. Visitors can tour the analogy outline boat or take part in a sail. The unit will begin with several objectives: To use historical documents as educational tools for the experiencing of local histories, to use primary sources -- objects - as a storytelling tool, to have students become familiar with the visual images in their community, to essay in the, make connections between artwork and analogy outline local history, to work collaboratively to make a group artwork. The essential questions will be: What sort of objects or images survive from the incident?

Why were some items preserved and homework doing others not preserved? How can objects, in outline, this case actual items in masters, the New Haven Museum, tell a story? How has the City of New Haven commemorated this important event in its history? How do we design and create a collaborative piece to commemorate the Amistad case that will visually document the struggle of the Amistad captives? New Haven and its residents played an important role in the both the maritime and legal journey of the Amistad captives. Analogy Essay. The case illustrates the Margaret Mead quote at the beginning of the paper. A small group of committed people from New Haven helped bring about homework doing change that resonated for essay years. Because Co-op is located near the historic New Haven Green, we are within walking distance of many of the search masters sites of analogy, importance in the Amistad case. We are only homework doing, one block away from the New Haven Museum and Historical Society (formerly the analogy outline New Haven Colony Historical Society). The first time I taught the about the Amistad captives, I came across a quote by Dr. John Henrik Clarke in The Middle Passage by Tom Feelings.

He wrote, “Of the countless number of Africans ripped from the villages of Africa -- from the Senegal River to northern Angola -- during the nearly four centuries of the slave trade, approximately one third of them died on the torturous march to the ships and masters thesis one third of them died in the holding stations on both sides of the Atlantic or on the ships. If the Atlantic were to dry up, it would reveal a scattered pathway of human bones, African bones marking the various routes of the Middle Passage.” I have never forgotten this image. This is the essay outline reason I think it is greek so important to teach all students of the struggle to overcome such atrocities. I am a visual arts teacher at Cooperative Arts Magnet High School (Co-op), an analogy, inter-district magnet high school. Approximately 65% of the students are from the essay edit city of New Haven and 35% come from surrounding towns.

The students apply for a lottery to come to Co-op and analogy essay outline choose an area of the arts to homework doing, apply to. This art form will be their area of intensive study for four years. Analogy. The students may choose from music, choral or instrumental, visual art, theater, creative writing, or dance. The Visual Art students take a double period of art, approximately 90 minutes, every day. Students come from districts other than New Haven to attend Co-op rather than their local public high schools, primarily because they are interested in studying the arts in a smaller setting. Co-op has 418 students enrolled in grades 9-12. The student population is 65 percent female and 35 percent male, 47 percent Black students, 24 percent Hispanic, 28 percent White and 1 percent Asian American students.

The main languages spoken are English and Spanish with 2 percent English language learners (ELLs). The school has 10 percent students with special education needs. The proportion of students eligible for free or reduced price lunches is 41 percent, which is higher than the state average. One of the classes that I most enjoy teaching is Art Foundations, a sophomore required class. This course focuses on an overview of the history of art from a global perspective. The course concentrates on history, criticism, and aesthetics, with studio projects that are designed to thesis greek, clarify course concepts and stimulate student interest. Students participate in lectures, discussions, written assignments, as well as studio work. The course is a double period, yearlong course taught on analogy essay Monday, Wednesday, and Friday. I teach this course in time-line fashion, starting with cave paintings and working our way through history to thesis, Pop Art.

I always like to analogy, study the Amistad case at the appropriate place in time (before Impressionism) because it is an search masters, important part of local history. Essay. Using primary sources in the classroom brings local history to life. In Filipino 2. Why should we study the representations of the Amistad case? Period images and surviving objects give us clues into essay the importance of the case, subsequent representations, and how it has been commemorated. It offers examples of how to visually document a narrative.

The ways in homework doing, which the Amistad case has captured popular attention, then subsided, and then reemerged is important for students to understand. Students need to see history is oftentimes the analogy essay outline viewpoint of the present looking back at the past. By examining how. New Haven has engaged with this story over time, students should see a variation of popular interest over time. 1 Diana R. McCain, Free Men: The Amistad Revolt and the American Anti-Slavery Movement. New Haven Colony Historical Society, 1990, 1 2 Randall Beach, “Amistad Returns from essay on prospero tempest Yearlong Voyage: Homecoming, Schooner’s Story Still Inspirational”, 22 June 2005, New Haven Register A1 3 Diana R. McCain, Free Men , 3 4 ibid., 4 5 Diana R. McCain, Free Men , 5 6 Clifton Johnson, “The Amistad Case and its Consequences in U.S. History”, Journal of the New Haven Colony Historical Society , Volume 36, No. 2, Spring 1990.

New Haven Colony Historical Society, 5 7 ibid., 5 8 Douglas O. Linder 2000 http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/amistad/AMI_ACT.HTM, 2. 9 Constance Baker Motley, “The Amistad Case and its Consequences in analogy essay, U.S. Thesis In Filipino 2. History”, Journal of the New Haven Colony Historical Society , Volume 36, No. 2, Spring 1990. Analogy Essay Outline. New Haven Colony Historical Society, 23 10 Clifton Johnson, “The Amistad Case and its Consequences in U.S. History”, 5 11 Douglas O. Linder 2000 http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/amistad/AMI_ACT.HTM, 4 12 Howard Jones, Mutiny on the Amistad, The Saga of a Slave Revolt and Its Impact on American Abolition, Law, and Diplomacy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987, 11 13 ibid., 43 14 The Africans in America , http://amistad.mysticseaport.org/discovery/story/africans.america.html, 2 15 http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/phrenology 16 op cit., 2 17 ibid., 3 18 Interior of search masters, a Slave Ship from John Warner Barber’s A History of the Amistad Captives , 1840, New Haven Museum and essay Historical Society, reprinted with permission of the New haven Museum and Historical Society 19 Death of tempest, Captain Ferrer, The Capture of the analogy essay Amistad from John Warner Barber’s A History of the greek goddess Amistad Captives , 1840, New Haven Museum and Historical Society, reprinted with permission of the New haven Museum and Historical Society 20 Caption, Cinque by Nathaniel Jocelyn, circa 1840 New Haven Museum and Historical Society 21 Caption, Cinque by analogy essay Nathaniel Jocelyn, circa 1840 New Haven Museum and Historical Society 22 Cinque by Nathaniel Jocelyn, circa 1840 New Haven Museum and Historical Society, reprinted with permission of the thesis greek goddess New haven Museum and Historical Society 23 Caption, Amistad mural, Troup Middle School, New Haven by Frank Rutkowski, c 1936-39 New Haven Museum and essay outline Historical Society.

Objectives: Students will know how culture, history, and the visual arts influence each other. Students will recognize that the visual arts tell something about the edit service time in history and culture. Students will understand the Amistad case and analogy outline the events leading up to the Africans confinement in New Haven. Homework Doing. Discussion about background of the analogy Amistad Case, pictures from The Middle Passage, map- “The Voyage of the Amistad Captives” by John O.C. Essay In The Tempest. McCrillis, 1989. Objectives: Students will understand and synthesize the various ways the African captives are portrayed in the exhibition. Outline. Visit to the New Haven Museum and Historical Society, 114 Whitney Avenue, New Haven to see the permanent exhibit, “Cinque Lives Here”. Materials required -- journal and pencils. Prior to the visit, the students will be given background information about the on prospero tempest Amistad Case and analogy outline its importance to New Haven’s history. At the museum, students will view the exhibit, “Cinque Lives Here”.

This room includes artwork and artifacts related to the Amistad case. The exhibit on the second floor, “The Federal Art Project in New Haven: The Era, Art Legacy” includes a photograph of the WPA Mural of the Amistad Captives, as well as the sketch for the mural. The students will view Cinque by Nathaniel Jocelyn c. 1840. Students will use the three methods of art criticism to write about this painting in their journals: Describe, Analyze and Interpret. 1. Describe: What do you see in this painting? Make a list of all the things you see. 2. Analyze: How is the work organized? Based on the elements and principles of design, discuss the way the artist has used line, shape, color, value, space, texture, etc. 3. My Favorite. Interpret: what is the artist saying to analogy outline, me? What is happening?

The student will make inferences about the message in the work, going beyond narration. Objectives: Students will practice taking a CAPT style reading for Information test. All tenth grade students in Connecticut must pass the Connecticut Academic Proficiency Test (CAPT). One portion of this test is Reading for Information. The CAPT Reading for Information test requires students to read three non-fiction articles and answer a combination of about my favorite, 12 multiple-choice and 6 open-ended questions. There are two types of open-ended questions; Developing and Interpretation and Demonstrating a Critical Stance.

This activity will allow students to practice taking this type of test. Students will read the analogy essay outline article “Herald on Amistad Trail” from the New York Morning Herald, November 12, 1839. http://amistad.mysticseaport.org/library/news/nymh/1839.11.21.heraldontrial.html. It is an account of the proceedings in court. Students will then use this article for a Reading for homework doing Information style test. See Activity Sheet 3. Students receive one point for each multiple-choice question and 0-2 points for each open-ended question, for a total of ten possible points. “Herald on Amistad Trail” Developing an analogy essay, Interpretation. 1. According to thesis in filipino, the article, the court proceedings for the day were: a. about the location of the schooner b. about the language of the captives. c. about the outline amount of money recovered. 2. The author of this article uses the word “libel” to mean: a. false accusation b. claim c. custody d. cargo. Demonstrating a Critical Stance. 3. Why did the author include the quote from Roger Sherman Baldwin, “If they are not found to be property, they must be immediately discharged, as it is homework doing not pretended that they are criminals.” a. Because the court proceedings were about the murder and mutiny. b. Because the court proceedings were about whether the captives were free men that were kidnapped. c. Because the court proceedings were about outline where the captors were from. d. Because the court proceedings were about whether the abolitionists should help the captives.

4. Why did the author include the quote “Green was blessed with a very convenient memory”. a. Because Green testified that Bannah spoke Spanish. b. Because Green testified that there was more money than really was there. c. Because Green testified that the homework doing boat was three hundred yard from shore. d. Because Green testified that Antonio gave Bannah more money than he admitted. Developing an Interpretation. Essay. 5. What does the author mean, “We shall have some rare disclosures from this fellow, if the essay my favorite abolitionists do not get the opportunity to tamper with him.”? Demonstrating a Critical Stance. 6. Why does the author call Green, “unworthy of credit.” Objectives: Students will synthesize and analyze the various memorials to the Amistad captives. Walking Tour of Amistad Sites.

These sites are all located on or around the New Haven Green. Objective: Students will synthesize and essay outline apply their knowledge of the sites of interest in the Amistad case. Materials needed -- Laminated copy of Doolittle Map, dry erase markers. Students will use the essay person Doolittle Map as a starting point to find the places of interest to this case. The map will be laminated so that the students can mark over analogy outline it and goddess the map can be wiped clean after the activity. The following questions address the major dimensions considered in analogy, CAPT test scoring for the literature section of the essay tempest test. ____ 1. Forming an initial understanding ____ 2. Developing an interpretation ____ 3. Essay. Making a connection ____ 4. Demonstrating a critical stance. 1. Describe the main character of the movie. 2. Describe the setting. 3. Essay In The. What is the Theme (main point or message) of the movie? 4. What symbols are used in this movie?

5. What is the main conflict in essay, this movie? 6. How does the main character change from the essay my favorite beginning of the story to essay outline, the end? What do you think causes this change? 7. Discuss your connection to the story. What does this story say about people in general? In what ways does it remind you of people you have known or experiences you have had? Use specific examples from the movie to explain your thinking. 8. Imagine yourself as a juror.

Who would you believe before the testimony? 9. Chose one of the following quotes to discuss: 10. Discuss the relationship between Roger Sherman Baldwin and Cinque. 2. How did it change throughout the film? Objectives: Students will understand how the differences in time and attitude have changed how the Amistad case has been commemorated.

Students should read excerpts from Fred Wilson’s Mining the Museum. The teacher will lead discussion of the essay outline following: How were the Africans portrayed at the time of the trials? (1839 to 1850s) (Wax figures, silhouettes, on display, portrait of Cinque), how were the Africans commemorated in the 1930s? (WPA mural showing the Africans performing on the New Haven Green), how are they commemorated now? (1989 to the present) (Amistad Memorial, Grove Street Cemetery Memorial, Cinque Lives Here, Amistad movie by Steven Spielberg) Students should reflect on this discussion in their journals. Collaborative mural, using collage, names of the captives, and maps. Materials for Activity: Rolls of brown craft paper, black construction paper, examples of heddle loom weavings, copies of the silhouettes of captives and their names and descriptions, white drawing paper, tempera paint, scissors, glue, map of about person, Cuba, United States, Africa. Analogy. Each student will be given the essay on prospero in the name of one or two of the captives, a copy of the silhouettes and the written descriptions from the Journal of the New Haven Colony Historical Society. Analogy. These should be glued into the student’s journal. By reading the description of the masters Africans, the students should establish empathy for the Africans as individuals. Students should make a larger version of the silhouette on black paper.

The African’s name will be written under each silhouette. Three students should be assigned the maps to recreate, one of analogy essay outline, Africa, the United States, and Cuba. The route of the ships, The Tecora, The Amistad , and The Gentleman should be indicated on the maps. Two long sheets of brown craft paper can be used for the background. The silhouettes, names, and maps should be glued onto the background. Students can work together to create a title for the mural. As a border for the whole piece, students should recreate, with paint, examples of double heddle-loom weavings.

These weavings are traditional to the people of thesis, Sierra Leone. These colorful painted strips can be glued around the outside edge of the mural. Students can also be assigned to write the caption for analogy essay the mural. “The Amistad Memorial”, the Amistad Committee, Inc. Pamphlet describing the memorial and essay in the tempest the artist, Ed Hamilton. The Africans in America, http://amistad.mysticseaport.org/discovery/story/africans.america.html.

Article that tells of the many visual images of the Africans and the public displays in 1839 and analogy essay 1840. Bayless, D. Hayne. “From Leg Irons to greek, Cast Bronze: Narrative Sculpture tell Slave’s Story”, 20 September 1992, New Haven Register D1. Interview with the sculptor and designer of the Amistad Memorial, Ed Hamilton. Beach, Randall. “Amistad Returns from Yearlong Voyage: Homecoming, Schooner’s Story Still Inspirational”, 22 June 2005, New Haven Register A1, A4. Description of the schooners return to New Haven and essay outline give excellent rationale for the continued study of the Amistad story. Cashman, Dennis. “Amistad Revisited”, 17 August 1997, New Haven Register F1. Interview with author David Pesci about in filipino his novel Amistad, and essay outline information about an homework doing, exhibit at the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford, “Amistad: The First Decade and analogy essay Beyond.”

Harris, Jennifer. Textiles: 5000 years, An International History and Illustrated Survey . New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. Publisher, 1993. Shows examples of double heddle loom weavings from essay about Sierra Leone. Jones, Howard. Analogy Outline. Mutiny on homework doing the Amistad, The Saga of a Slave Revolt and Its Impact on analogy essay outline American Abolition, Law, and essay service Diplomacy. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. Journal of the New Haven Colony Historical Society, Volume 36, No. 2, Spring 1990.

New Haven Colony Historical Society. A concise and essay comprehensive account of the Amistad case. Includes silhouettes and descriptions of the Africans. Kramer, Harold R. Farmington Canal Linear Park Page, http://www.wj1b.com/Pages%cheshire/linear.park.htm. Short description of places in Farmington associated with the Africans. McCain, Diana R. Free Men: The Amistad Revolt and the American Anti-Slavery Movement. New Haven Colony Historical Society, 1990. Greek. A short guide to the Amistad case including many visuals.

Stein, Judith E. “Sins of Omission: Fred Wilson’s Mining the outline Museum”, Art in edit service, America, October 1993. A synopsis of analogy essay, article written about Mining the Museum (Fred Wilson’s curated exhibit at the Maryland Historical Society of Boston) for Art in America . Thompson, Barbara. Fred Wilson, So Much Trouble in essay about, the World Believe it or Not http://hoodmuseum.dartmouth.edu/exhibitions/fred/wilson/fredwilsonpressr.html. Interview with Fred Wilson prior to his exhibit at Dartmouth College’s Hood Museum. The U.S.

Navy and the Amistad, March 31,1998 http://www.history.navy.lil/faqs55-1.htm. Facts of the U.S. Navy’s role in the Amistad case. Facts of the first trial against the Africans as it pertains to the United States treaty with Spain. Essay Outline. Examples of masters, double heddle loom weaving.

Photographs of some of the important Amistad sites in New Haven. Feelings, Tom. The Middle Passage, White Ships, Black Cargo . Essay. New York: Dual Books, 1995. An emotionally moving illustrated book with an my favorite, introduction by Dr. Henrik Clarke. “Herald on Amistad Trial,” New York Morning Herald, 21 Nov., 1839. One of the many articles reporting on the Amistad captives and the trial. Linder, Douglas, O. Outline. 2000 http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/amistad/AMI_ACT.HTM. Timeline: The Amistad Revolt, http://amistad.mysticseaport.org/timeline/amistad.html. Useful list of all of the events of the Amistad Case.

Africans in goddess, Chains. John Warner Barber, 1840, New Haven Museum and Historical Society. Original art depicting the captives. Photograph of “The Amistad Captives”, Hugo Ohlms 1930 WPA Mural, Troup Academy, New Haven, at the New Haven Museum and Historical Society. Photos of the mural by Hugo Ohlms. Analogy. The mural shows a scene of the Africans performing on the New Haven Green. Amistad Movie, Spielberg, S. (Director). (May 4, 1999) Amistad [Motion Picture] Dreamworks Video. Academy award nominated movie chronicling the Amistad captives and their fight for freedom. Cinque.

Oil on canvas by Nathaniel Jocelyn (1796-1881). New Haven, c.1840. New Haven Museum and in the Historical Society. Oil portrait of Cinque in a heroic pose. Doolittle Map, 1824.

Shows the original nine squares of the New Haven Green and essay outline surrounding area. Eastern View of New Haven Green. John Warner Barber, woodcut, 1840, New Haven Museum and masters Historical Society. View of the New Haven Green. Interior of a Slave Ship from John Warner Barber’s A History of the Amistad Captives 1840.

New Haven Museum and Historical Society. Depiction of the analogy essay outline hold of a slave ship showing captives in a space three feet high. La Amistad. Watercolor on in filipino 2 paper by an unknown artist. Connecticut after 1839. New Haven after 1839. Essay Outline. New Haven Museum and thesis in filipino 2 Historical Society.

Painting of the schooner. Mutiny on the Amistad. Hale woodruff, oil on canvas, c. 1941, New Haven Museum and Historical Society. Essay. Scene of the thesis mutiny. Newspaper advertisement for the “New Haven Museum”, New Haven Palladium, 1841, New Haven Museum and Historical Society. Copy of actual newspaper article. Newspaper article from the essay outline Daily Herald, September 16, 1839, written by Josiah Gibbs, New Haven Museum and Historical Society.

Copy of actual newspaper article. The Voyage of the Amistad Captives. John O.C. Tempest. McCrillis, 1989, New Haven Museum and Historical Society. Map showing the analogy outline route of the captives, Africa, Cuba, and North America. The following standards will be implemented in the activities described in this unit. New Haven Public Schools Power Standards for on prospero tempest the Visual Arts. 1. Analogy. Communicate in art media, techniques, and processes. (Art Making) 2. Reflect upon, decide, analyze, interpret and thesis evaluate one’s artwork and that of others. (Response to Art)

The following standard will be addressed with activities at the New Haven Museum. 3. Analogy. Making connections between the visual arts, other disciplines, and daily life.

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chivalry thesis wiki Chivalry and the Law: How Women Get Off. The chivalry thesis, as it relates to criminal justice, is the idea that women are more often spared punishment for their crimes than men, in part, because a predominantly male legal system favors women, a prejudice stemming from an inculcated or ingrained sense of chivalry. When the judges (or magistrates), police, prosecuting attorneys, and other individuals in our legal systems are female, it is claimed that this bias is reduced, therefore resulting in outline, less clemency toward women in the criminal justice process. This thesis was originally presented by Otto Pollak in the 1950 book The Criminality of Women , but unlike his thesis, which was rooted primarily in biological causes, this piece will argue for the presence of 2, a chivalry bias in analogy, criminal justice from a principally sociological perspective. While the existence of a chivalry bias in homework doing, various criminal justice systems, such as those of the United States and Britain, has long been disputed, more recent research has contended and sought to analogy outline confirm it, though employing different (yet interchangeable) terminology. In 2004, Max M. Schanzenbach, from the homework doing, Northwestern University School of Law, made the case for the actuality of a paternalistic or chivalrous bias in a paper called Racial and Gender Disparities in Prison Sentences: The Effect of District-Level Judicial Demographics. Significant among his findings was that, where gender disparities were concerned: The greater the proportion of female judges in a district, the lower the gender disparity for that district. He, as others have before and after him, concluded that this, along with comparable discoveries, was evidence of a paternalistic bias among male judges that favors women. This concept and essay, his findings, while mainly offered under an alternative designation, are the edit service, same as the arguments and evidence for the presence of a chivalry bias in criminal justice. Additionally, self-report studies have, for many years, revealed that the disparity between the sexes in criminal behavior is essay outline not as great as the differences in arrest and homework doing, conviction statistics.

In British law, for instance: Although women who stepped far outside expected gender roles (through the use [of] violence towards children, for example) were prosecuted severely, most crimes committed by women were likely to be dealt with by less formal judicial procedures, such as informal arbitration and summary prosecution, or at the Quarter Sessions courts, and analogy essay outline, such cases do not appear in the Old Bailey records. A similar state of affairs has existed during much of U.S. history. But before we shift on essay edit to inspecting at length more self-report survey findings, data on arrest and conviction disparities, and a few feasible solutions, let us examine what chivalry was, what it means today, and what role it may play in the criminal justice system, as well as some broader theories surrounding the issue. Notions of chivalry from the analogy, medieval period have continued to the present in some ways and essay on prospero, melted away in essay outline, others; initially intended as a set of rules to live by for Christian knights, this code of conduct contained elements of patriotism, honor, and to greek a lesser extent, guidance regarding interactions with women, which some aver began as observations of the importance of the Virgin Mary in the Catholic belief system. Today, the sole aspect that the majority of people, men in particular, tend to analogy outline remember about chivalry is homework doing that women must be treated with reverence and respect. The distorted view of women and men in regard to criminal behaviors dates back even to the earliest days of sociological theory and outline, research, which women were, prior to the emergence of search thesis, feminism, not largely a part of as subjects. Indeed, when women were considered, the prevailing notion was that crimes committed by females were more exclusive to the individual, stemming from a defect of their own personal biology, as opposed to something which all women were potentially capable of. Late 19th century thinkers such as criminologist and physician Cesare Lombroso and Italian historian, journalist, and novelist Guglielmo Ferrero made cases based on such reasoning.

In their 1898 book The Female Offender , the pair theorized that women's biology has a tendency to prevent them from engaging in criminal behavior. Further, they believed that, while women do suffer from a paucity of moral code, this is counterbalanced by other feminine biological traits (e.g., underdeveloped intelligence, maternity, and analogy essay, piety). In 1950, writer and professor of sociology Otto Pollak, the originator of the chivalry thesis (as noted above), contended that women were skilled at concealing their crimes due to biology, arguing in addition that women had grown efficient at lying to men by way of practice at hiding their discomfort and greek goddess, pain during periods and false interest and analogy, pleasure during sex. Author David Jessel and scientist Anne Moir, in 1997, attempted to support the biological argument as they discovered that a significant percentage of women are let off on charges of violent acts due to PMS. Different theories, some of which antedate Otto Pollak's work, centered on essay edit service the divergent roles of the sexes in relation to their children. Talcott Parsons, in a 1937 book entitled The Structure of Social Action , asserted that because children were most frequently raised by the female parent, this provided a role model for girls which was denied boys, at least in the modern industrialized world where men had to essay outline go off to work rather than take boys out to the field to learn farming. More current research likewise supports this notion in a broader context. In the 2008 study Family Transitions and Later Delinquency and Drug Use, Marvin D. Krohn, Gina Penly Hall, and Alan J. Lizotte hypothesized that family transitions such as divorce will trigger a greater tendency for drug abuse, both directly and indirectly, through effects which such transitions have on school performance, discipline, and household stability. In addition, their work focused on the greater impact that these transitions have on greek boys than on girls due to essay the fact that boys are more likely to externalize their anger at the situation, and essay on prospero in the tempest, that in broken families, the mother is essay more likely to retain control of the children. The belief that the thesis 2, mother-girl bond is stronger than the mother-boy bond was hypothesized in their research to essay produce this outcome. Interestingly, however, the actual results of this study did not support the gender difference which was hypothesized, although they did, unsurprisingly, show an greek goddess, overall relationship between family disruption and subsequent drug abuse.

Enter the analogy outline, Chivalry Thesis. Though Otto Pollak was the originator of the on prospero, chivalry thesis, the faults of essay, his overly biological approach and explanations rendered the validity and effectiveness of masters thesis, his conclusions lacking. But by taking a more sociological approach, it is possible to evidence the idea of a chivalry bias in various criminal justice processes. In a 1995 study called Young People and Crime , John Graham and Benjamin Bowling, of the analogy essay outline, British Home Office Research and Statistics Department, conducted a national random sample of 1,721 young people aged 14 to 25, with a booster sample of essay tempest, 808 respondents from ethnic minorities of the same age. In this study, participants were asked whether they had ever committed any of a range of offenses from vandalism to serious property and violent crimes. The study was extensive in scope and analogy outline, covered sex, age, and racial variables. In their findings, they reported that 31% of females and 55% of males admitted to edit service at least one of analogy outline, 23 offenses throughout their lifetimes, and 12% of essay person, females and 28% of males admitted to analogy outline at least one in in filipino 2, the last year. This revealed that sex differences in criminal behavior were not as great as the disparities in crime statistics, and although the essay, authors did not promote a chivalry thesis directly, their data could, and has been interpreted to, support such a thesis. Then, in 2000, Claire Flood-Page, Siobhan Campbell, Victoria Harrington, and Joel Miller, also of the Home Office, performed a second sweep of the Youth Lifestyles Survey.

In their report, 37% of females and 57% of essay on prospero tempest, males admitted to at least one of 27 offenses in their lifetimes, and 11% of females and 26% of males admitted to at least one in analogy outline, the last year. They likewise discovered no significant change during the six years between the first survey in 1992/93 and the second survey from 1998/99 in the percentage of women or men who admitted to committing offenses in the past year. These outcomes were congruent with the Graham and homework doing, Bowling findings in suggesting some difference in the probability of being convicted between the sexes. Furthermore, a number of studies have endeavored to measure the variance in sentences for women and men that might be due to a chivalry bias. One of the more striking instances of a marked disparity comes from essay outline, a 2001 work called Racial, Ethnic, and Gender Disparities in Sentencing: Evidence from the U.S. Federal Courts by professor David B. Thesis 2? Mustard, of the University of Georgia. Without controlling for variables such as criminal history and analogy outline, level of offense, his review found that: The average sentence for males is 278.4 percent greater than that of females (51.5 versus 18.5 months).

Later in the text, he noted that after controlling for the offense level, criminal history, district, and offense type, . . . females received 5.5 fewer months than males. According to Mustard, the average sentence length is 46 months, which evaluated at the mean, evinces that males receive 12 percent longer terms than females. Essay On Prospero? He also remarked that females receive even shorter sentences relative to men than whites relative to blacks. Analogy Essay Outline? Lastly, much like Max M. Schanzenbach, he argued that while literature on discrimination regularly declares that females are objects of discrimination and receive worse outcomes, in sentencing: women receive better outcomes, consistent with women's being treated paternalistically in court. Homework Doing? As well, in Do You Receive a Lighter Prison Sentence Because You Are a Woman? An Economic Analysis of Federal Criminal Sentencing Guidelines, Supriya Sarnikar, Todd Sorensen, and Ronald L. Oaxaca (2007) observed what they suspected was a 30% gender gap. But in a more recent U.S. paper from 2012 entitled Estimating Gender Disparities in Federal Criminal Cases, Sonja B. Outline? Starr, a professor of law at the University of Michigan Law School, inquired: Do otherwise-similar men and women who are arrested for the same crimes end up with the same punishments, and if not, at what points do their fates diverge? Importantly, she noted that this is not a simple measure of the final verdict in edit, trials which ascend to completion.

That number, as measured by previous studies, would be lower. Instead, Starr took into account intermediate decisions made along the essay, way (to the edit, extent that they can be traced), such as discoveries of evidence by the police and decisions to outline prosecute or not by prosecuting attorneys. Prosecuting attorneys, in fact, have a great deal to say regarding what sort of sentence a convicted criminal will face. In a case involving a couple, such as a husband and wife, committing a serious crime, they might select to reduce the charges against the woman by essay, claiming that it was the analogy essay outline, man who planned the crime, and that the woman had little choice in the matter. Sentencing guidelines were, in the past, exceptionally broad at times, beginning with no jail sentence and rising to tens of thesis 2, years. These ranges were later more tightly constrained, but that had the effect of prosecutors adjusting the charges which they brought against defendants, as alluded to analogy essay outline above, to achieve the same effect: In 2003, Congress passed the PROTECT Act. Essay? The Act sought to eliminate virtually all departures from the Guidelines by creating a reporting mechanism for the judges who were not 'compliant.' These evolving factors over the years have made precise determinations regarding the totality of gender bias in the law arduous to come by. Prior to Starr's work, several studies attempted to analogy arrive at an estimate, and essay on prospero in the, concluded values, as partially referenced already, ranging from analogy essay, 10% to 30% longer sentences for men than women.

Yet these studies only considered the bias as it might exist from the point of arrest until final disposition of any given case. Person? Starr analyzed the essay, data in terms of several points at which such a bias could be applied, and found that being male can contribute in homework doing, sum to a 63% increase in sentence length on average. (It should be mentioned here that a case decided by essay outline, the U.S. Supreme Court in on prospero in the, 2005, United States v. Booker, 543 U.S. 220 (2005), and three subsequent cases, restored a certain degree of freedom to judges when it comes to essay sentencing, but it is too soon to tell if this will deepen or lessen the extent of unequal sentences for women and goddess, men.) Since Roman times, Lady Justice has been depicted wearing a blindfold and carrying a set of scales to represent the objectivity applied by the court system. The facts are weighed, and justice is not distracted by the superficialities of emotion, hence the blindfold.

Yet we know that in the real world, justice does not function so flawlessly. In the modern era, it has been accepted that fairness begins, not in the courtroom, but in the legislatures and councils which produce the laws in outline, the first place. 2? While laws against murder and outline, robbery would not typically specify the sex of the edit, perpetrator, there were, until recently, still laws on outline the books that assumed that sexual aggression was always committed by a male and that the victim was always female. Alterations to both U.S. and search thesis, British law have now largely eliminated personal pronouns such as he, she, him, and essay, her, replacing the gendered terms with sex-neutral language such as perpetrator and victim in legal definitions of thesis, rape and sexual abuse. But those modifications have not yet entirely filtered into the consciousness of the public and media, and we often see people, including journalists, leap to assumptions about the analogy, sexes of victims and masters, perpetrators even when so doing compromises the argument which they are attempting to essay outline make.

Even when laws are discussed by legislators and the courts, two of the most substantial elements of criminal justice, the search, use of essay outline, sex-neutral language has still not fully taken hold. Unfortunately, when it comes to studying crime from a sociological perspective, these prejudices of the essay about person, past can still thwart our best intentions. We lament the analogy essay, fact that so many crime studies rely exclusively on essay tempest surveys, frequently anonymous ones, but our criminal justice systems do not perceive themselves as the servants of sociologists. The reason that sociologists must so regularly rely on surveys is essay that crime statistics are, in some cases, either unreliable (different states report differently), or unavailable (police and court records having been expunged for one reason or another). Because, mathematically, the homework doing, number of analogy, convictions cannot exceed the number of prosecutions, and the number of prosecutions cannot exceed the number of arrests, we witness in the public record good statistics about convictions, less perfect data regarding arrests, and less data about those who were acquitted or arrested and essay in the tempest, then released for analogy essay outline reasons other than acquittal. Since there will always be individuals who are falsely accused, and thesis, even more who are mistakenly arrested, this seems an expectable outcome as far as data collection is concerned.

It just doesn't assist us in analogy essay, understanding crime as well as we would desire to essay about person in the trenches. Essay? The answers to questions such as: How many women committed a robbery but were freed as a first offense, and how does this compare with men in the same or similar circumstances? can, for the most part, only be conjectured about. As imperfect as the data that we have is, we must strive to greek goddess make sense of it. Analogy Essay Outline? Concurrently, we must hope that the search masters, quality of the data improves in order that more crimes can be prevented in the first place, rather than placing the emphasis, as we do now, on after the fact detection, conviction, and punishment. What About the Children? One of the several facets of these biases (against men) is the presumption that women take primary responsibility for the raising of children, an easy assumption to make until a few decades ago, but far less so today. Sentencing guidelines and the laws themselves do not have an explicit manner of analogy essay outline, handling this concern regarding the welfare of children. Were that so, a great deal more transparency would be possible. A man who was solely responsible for three children could thus expect to receive a lighter sentence.

Without such unambiguous guidelines in the law, it is likely that child welfare is simply taken into account at homework doing an almost subconscious level under the analogy essay outline, presupposition that it is principally the obligation or occupation of women. This extends beyond a mere notion of chivalry alone. As it becomes more and more common for men to assume roles as caregivers, this form of bias may well start to essay service correct itself, just as gender balance on the bench will, to a degree, correct the bias due to chivalry (or paternalism). How Can It Change? The first substantial development to recognize here is that this issue is changing. FBI arrest data from 2003 to 2012 show that arrest rates have decreased for males while increasing slightly for females overall, with significant differences in some categories. We can anticipate that politicians and pundits will do everything that they can to maneuver in front of the parade and work to convince us that they are leading it, but demographic shifts which began decades ago continue to bear fruit when it comes to the pursuit of equality in analogy, the present. Women have nearly caught up with men in law schools today, and while we would hope to maintain a fair and close balance there when one is attained, this has and will continue to gradually populate the thesis in filipino 2, bench - and on down through the legal system - with women who are, at least based on what the evidence indicates, more likely not to analogy outline share men's greater biases of chivalry or paternalism (women who might, in fact, overcompensate against in the tempest these drives or beliefs). Moreover, if the trend for more and more men to analogy essay outline be responsible for the raising of children endures, this too could result in that pendulum swinging the other way for a while, but clearly we are not there yet.

Sex-neutral laws, more specific sentencing guidelines which take men's growing share of childcare into greater consideration, and even seemingly unrelated factors such as efforts to clear overcrowded prisons by endeavoring to reform criminals rather than incarcerate them could all have an equalizing effect when it comes to gender disparities in criminal justice. This article has been republished with updates to (August 11, 2017): @1056858 Great stuff. I've followed you for ages and you've produced a lot of good work in the past few years. Certainly deserve much more credit for the terrific insights. Also agree with your point on G+ about chivalry being alive and well and just another form of gynocentrism. It's part of the reason people view women above men in homework doing, some respects. Like the idea that women are innocent, nonviolent by nature, etc. Analogy? The knights have simply gone from suits of in the tempest, armor to our courts and legislatures. And I do think women view women differently and more equally to men generally, especially when it comes to shitty behavior, than men view women. I remember back when Casey Anthony was in trial, all my dude friends just joked about her appearance and all my female friends were outraged.

And then the protests of her happened before and after her verdict and almost everyone protesting was a woman/mother. There's a lot of truth in what you wrote here. So thank you for saying it so well.

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Kellogg Video Essay: Practice Here. Why do you think MBAs are so sought after by employers? Why are they able to command the salaries they do? The answer is that employers are looking for the best and outline the brightest to take on leadership roles within their organizations. A lot of people assume that companies recruit MBAs for their intelligence combined with two years of essay my favorite person practical training. While that’s partly true, the reality is that MBAs aren’t the ‘smartest’ people out essay outline, there in absolute (there are a myriad of grad and PhD students out there that far surpass the average MBA in raw intelligence). Beyond that, anybody could buy a bunch of business textbooks online and acquire a lot of the knowledge one would otherwise obtain in the MBA classroom. Thesis Goddess? I said that employers are looking for analogy essay outline the best and the brightest but actually they are looking for an elusive combination of about my favorite person best and brightest. The bright part you can learn but the best part tends to be something intrinsic to the individual herself. In that sense an MBA can round out someone with natural potential but an MBA can never transform someone without it.

Bright (smart with practical business training) + Best (a natural leader: friendly, charming, persuasive, a self-assured public speaker with the soft skills essential for a manager) = MBA. Kellogg (like every other school) cares about personality, communication style, and the likability of applicants. I call this ‘ presenting well ‘ (and that doesn’t mean being a PowerPoint ninja). Most schools screen for this during their interview process. Essay? But if you think about it, that’s a very inefficient strategy because the Adcom doesn’t really have a sense of homework doing what percentage of the candidates it invites to interview will present well until they walk through the door. Outline? By that time the Adcom is stuck choosing the incoming class from the pool it interviewed. Maybe 80% will present well, maybe only 30% will.

Kellogg wants to interview a cohort of applicants in which 100% present well. That’s why Kellogg is pre-screening applicants via the video essay. NYU Stern does the same thing via their Personal Expression Essay. Chicago Booth and MIT Sloan do it via their optional multimedia essays. In the video essays, Kellogg isn’t looking for the best orators – students will have time to hone their communication and my favorite presentation skills in Kellogg’s courses and clubs. Essay Outline? Likewise, they are not looking for any particular opinion or response. Thesis Greek? They just want to analogy essay, see what you, the unpolished candidate, look like in a spontaneous situation.

As such, the your main job is to thesis in filipino, be yourself – to relax, feel comfortable, and analogy outline communicate naturally as they would if they were talking to a friend. The flip side of that is homework doing, that if you memorize answers and recite them verbatim you’ll come off as very robotic. I had a candidate one year that wrote out, word for word, and then memorized answers to analogy outline, every question the Adcom could possibly put to essay service, him during an interview. He sent me a video of himself ‘interviewing’ and analogy outline I was shocked by essay service how bizarrely he came across: He didn’t make any of the natural pauses in his spoken language that people do when they are answering a spontaneous question. He spoke rapidly and incessantly in analogy essay outline, a bizarre monotone with no facial expression or hand gesturing to thesis, punctuate what he was saying.

That’s because he wasn’t thinking about what he was saying, he was reciting what he had already memorized. No amount of analogy essay coaching from me was able to edit, ‘undo’ the essay, damage and it resulted in search masters thesis, some deeply painful rejections from top five business schools. He thought that he could outsmart the system but ultimately he shot himself in the foot. Here’s what Kellogg’s Adcom tells us about essay outline their video essay: The Video Essays provide applicants with an additional opportunity to demonstrate what they will bring to our vibrant Kellogg community – in an interactive way. Each applicant will complete two short video essay questions. The questions are designed to homework doing, bring to essay, life the person we have learned about on paper. After submitting a completed application, each applicant will be asked to essay about, complete two Video Essay Questions. Essay Outline? One will be about the candidate’s interest in Kellogg and the other will be a “getting to know you” type of search thesis question. Here’s what you need to know about Kellogg’s video essay:

After you submit your application to outline, Kellogg, the video essay will become available to you in your Kellogg applicant dashboard. You have one week after the application deadline to complete the video essay. If you submit in essay service, Round 1 you need to analogy outline, complete the essay by October 2nd, if you submit in thesis greek goddess, Round 2 you need to submit by January 18th. There are two video essay responses you will give, one axed on your interest in analogy essay outline, Kellogg while the other will be more axed around you. Before you give your actual response you’ll have up to homework doing, 10 practice questions to get comfortable with the video interface. Analogy Essay Outline? When you give your official video responses you’ll have 20 seconds to think about the question and then one minute to essay about, respond to it. II Common Kellogg Video Essay Questions. This year Kellogg has decided to share the first question with applicants ahead of time. The Kellogg question is: What path are you interested in pursuing, how will you get there, and analogy why is this program right for you?

This is the essay edit, typical Career Goals/Why MBA? question condensed down into a one-minute format. Most applicants will take the time to prepare the question prior to their video interview. Essay? Here is how you might structure that response. Goals : State your short long term goals. Give an example or two of the type of company you’d like to work at post-MBA as well as the role you hope to interview for. Backstory : Briefly mention how your past work experience, training, extracurricular activities or personal passion tie in essay edit, with your short-term goal. Action Plan : Is your transition to role X a natural one given your past experience? For most people the answer is: not completely.

How will you prepare yourself for your future role (via networking opportunities, classes, clubs, projects etc.)? Growth Plan : Think about what your true weak points are and how you might leverage your two years at business school to work on them. Example: Become more extroverted > public speaking, voice opinion via case method; Get outside comfort zone > treks, student talent show. Cultural : What about Kellogg really resonates with you? What excites you? This is essay, where you really want to essay in the tempest, bring the charm and your excitement at the prospect of being a part of the analogy, Kellogg community. Edit Service? Mention one thing you might gain and one thing you might contribute. Kellogg’s second video essay question will be axed around you.

Typically it’s either a personal question, a behavioral question or an opinion-based question. In section III (below) you have an opportunity to practice giving answers using a video interview software and 30 questions from previous years. III Practice giving a Kellogg Video Essay: Record Playback. The problem with video (and watching yourself on analogy essay, video) is that it is almost always a traumatic process. People tend to be overly self-critical so if you do record yourself practicing for Kellogg’s video interview don’t allow the process to undermine your self-confidence.

Avoid becoming preoccupied with small, inconsequential issues such as hand-gestures or body language, because that may potentially sabotage your ability to on prospero tempest, just naturally be yourself. The goal of essay practicing should be to improve your ability to think and speak spontaneously. So here’s the cool part! You can click on the record button below and an interactive video recorder will open and homework doing allow you can record, play back and re-record video of analogy outline yourself answering Kellogg’s questions. Your browser doesn't support Adobe Flash, sorry.

Please install Adobe Flash plugin. Get Flash Player. I’ve hidden the Kellogg questions behind spoiler tabs so you don’t accidentally read all of them at first glance. There are 2 questions in every section. Take some time to actually practice looking at essay, a question for the first time, giving yourself 20 seconds to analogy essay outline, prepare an answer, and then another 60 seconds to answer. Then go back and watch the video of yourself.

What path are you interested in pursuing, how will you get there, and about my favorite person why is this program right for you? Goals : State your short long term goals. Give an example or two of the type of essay company you’d like to work at tempest, post-MBA as well as the role you hope to interview for. Backstory : Briefly mention how your past work experience, training, extracurricular activities or personal passion tie in with your short-term goal. Action Plan : Is your transition to role X a natural one given your past experience?

For most people the essay outline, answer is: not completely. How will you prepare yourself for your future role (via networking opportunities, classes, clubs, projects etc.)? Growth Plan : Think about what your true weak points are and homework doing how you might leverage your two years at business school to work on them. Essay? Example: Become more extroverted > public speaking, voice opinion via case method; Get outside comfort zone > treks, student talent show. Cultural : What about Kellogg really resonates with you?

What excites you? This is where you really want to bring the charm and in filipino your excitement at the prospect of being a part of the Kellogg community. Mention one thing you might gain and one thing you might contribute. 2. Outline? Tell us about how you overcame an obstacle. 4. On Prospero Tempest? If you could keep one of your personal strengths, possibly losing one or more of the others, which would you choose? 6. What kind of analogy essay a team player are you? 8. Thesis Greek Goddess? When you leave your job for b-school, what will your teammates miss most about essay outline you? 10. Tell us about someone you admire, and why.

2. Tell me about a time that you disagreed with a colleague and how did you handle it? 4. Essay? Tell us about a time when your idea was challenged. 6. Tell us about a time when you were on a team and there was disagreement among team members. What did you do? 8. Tell us about a time when you were pleasantly surprised by a work situation. 10. Please describe a creative solution that you have come up with for a problem. 2. If you were going to donate $1M to the university, how would you want it spent? 4. Tell us, in your view, one downside for business due to globalization. 6. Discuss your thoughts about the following statement: “Business leaders are the world’s new role models and they are failing.” IV Kellogg Video Essay Tips on Lighting, Clothing Location Selection.

You can use a couple of outline floor lights and perhaps a clamp or desk light to achieve this lighting set-up. Essay On Prospero In The? You’ll need two key lights and one fill light. The key lights are placed about 2-3 feet away from you at about a 35 degree angle from your nose. The key lights help eliminate any shadows (they literally fill in every crevice in your face from analogy, both the thesis, left and the right). The fill light should be placed behind you, angled towards the top of outline your head. The fill light helps to differentiate the top of your head and shoulders from the background.

Without it people look more two-dimensional on about person, film. I use 100 watt equivalent florescent bulbs and Rosco Tough White #3026 diffusion paper $6/sheet ( you can purchase it at BH by clicking here ). That said, the diffusion paper is more for shooting high def video with a high quality camera (it might not make any difference if you’re just filming with a webcam). Kellogg Video Essay: Background Location. Whatever background or location you choose, I’d advise you to essay, stay away from windows altogether because it can cause overexposure and other lighting problems. Notice how the right side of this person’s face is lit up and the left side is in shadow? That’s because of the my favorite person, window behind him. If you decide to film at home or in the office, look for analogy outline a small space without a lot going on in the background. The first two slides in the presentation below illustrate what you don’t want – a wide angle view of the entire office. Look for a corner or small space with a limited amount wall hangings and other decorations in view. I recently saw this video which was created by essay tempest a student applying to NYU Stern . The picture is from the video. The living room is analogy essay, too ‘busy’ with flowers, furniture, lots of pictures and stenciling on the wall.

The shot is from thesis, too far away – ideally you want just your head and shoulders visible. Finally the analogy essay, candidate’s shirt looks disheveled – I feel like he just ate a turkey dinner and homework doing had to undo a few buttons :/ I’d highly suggest buying a roll of Savage Seamless Background Paper for $10 here . You’re going to need 53? x 12 yards (no more and no less). Personally I use Thunder Gray for my videos but you can buy whatever color you like. Outline? Keep in search, mind that red, yellow and orange might cause you to look sort of red, yellow or orange yourself. If you want to play it safe go for analogy essay any shade of gray, blue, purple or beige. In Filipino 2? Below you’ll find examples of some of the colors Savage offers. If you want to achieve the effect on the left hand side, you’ll need a light behind your chair pointing at the paper which will create a gradient effect and also remove the analogy outline, shadow your head casts on the paper.

So you’ll have to add a fourth light to your three-point lighting set-up or a second light to your ring light set-up. The right hand version is done with just lighting pointed at the subject and creates a much flatter background effect. Essay? Either is analogy, fine. In general you want to avoid black and white because they are such saturated colors they tend to dominate a scene. If you’re using a color background then you want to edit service, wear neutral colors (gray, beige). Analogy Essay? If you are using a gray, white, black or beige background then you can wear a color that looks good on you. The idea is to have one focal color in essay service, the shot (either the background or your top/shirt).

Ideally just your head and shoulders should be visible in analogy essay outline, the shot so both men and homework doing women are going to analogy essay, want to choose a shirt or top that pretty much comes all the way up to your neck or collar bone. The video essay is supposed to assess how well you’ll fit in the Kellogg community – so think about what you might wear to class at Kellogg….probably something nice but casual right? You don’t want to essay about person, look like Donald Trump in your video – you want to look smart, friendly and laid back. Guys : Wear a solid-colored, rounded-neck, t-shirt or wear a solid-colored button down shirt (light gray looks good on analogy essay, everyone). Homework Doing? While a t-shirt might seem too casual to essay outline, wear to an interview, on camera it will look clean and the solid material will make you pop. I’d ditch the suit jacket and tie because honestly there won’t be enough of it in the shot and essay service it’s just going to add yet another color to the mix. Ladies : Here are some things to avoid based on my own trials and errors filming professional videos. Wearing a scoop or deep v-neck tends to give viewers the impression that something is missing (i.e. Essay Outline? you’ll look strangely naked) when the shot is thesis in filipino 2, only of your head and shoulders.

Thin and flimsy materials don’t look great on camera so avoid silk, polyester and anything that lacks shape or clings to your body. I’d avoid wearing a suit jacket because honestly there won’t be enough of it in a head and shoulders shot and analogy essay it’s just going to add yet another color to essay, the mix. What will look great is anything with a high, rounded neckline – one that comes up to your collarbone or neck. You’ll look great in a rounded-neck, solid colored t-shirt. While that might seem too casual to wear to an interview, on camera it will look clean and the solid material will make you pop. Cashmere is another material that always looks good on video because it’s a thick and essay has a matte finish. A solid-colored button down shirt would also be a good choice. Would I recommend Leah? Oh yes, without a doubt. She truly helped me in ways I could not imagine, and I am so excited to essay service, be going to analogy essay, business school this fall. Leah's creativity is unmatched which is exemplified with the homework doing, stupendous work she did on my Chicago Booth Essays.

Her work ethic and willingness to outline, spend as much as time it takes to get the right answer is incredible. I finally had multiple offers from top schools (Kellogg, LBS, Booth) while I was waitlisted at HBS.